The Psychology Behind The Smile

Wearing a Healthy Smile Says A Lot About A Person

clean teeth - healthy smileSome smiles are natural while others are fake. There are genuine smiles that show gleaming white teeth, while other smiles are a little more reserved, possibly hiding poor dental care from others. There are also those smiles that are clearly fake and miserable, forced through with effort and strain. Then there are the polite like smiles that are often more like a grimace. These smiles can indicate embarrassment as much as happiness.

A genuine bellowing laugh can increase your heart rate and positively impact your  breathing pattern, while also lowering your blood pressure.

Smiling is a social gesture that can indicate various emotions. When people don’t smile often it can be a sign of unhappiness. Some people are very happy but tend not to smile possibly because of yellow teeth stained from smoking or drinking coffee, or possibly missing teeth or rotted teeth. There are short term solution that can fix issues of discoloration like visiting a dentist.

Other issues such as depression can be treated medically by prescription or through regular visits with a licensed psychologist. The psychology behind a smile can be speak volumes about a persons mental health. Mental health can be effected by something as simple as crooked teeth. Someone with a mouth full of crooked teeth may suffer from a lack of self confidence and  could feel insecure about showing their teeth. This then ends up effecting them and their daily lives, almost living as a prisoner of their own smile. This can have long lasting psychological effects on a person and there should be an effort to correct this if possible.

Smiling also happens to be one of the most universal languages on the planet. healthy baby smile

Babies who are born blind know to smile the same as babies that are born with site. Smiling is seen less in people with power then it is seen with the poor or less fortunate. Smiling can be used as a from of body language to send a message to another. Smiling is more universal than any other physical gesture like hand shakes and hugs.

Smiling can improve the health and happiness of a person. Make a conscious effort daily to smile more and make others smile.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

The Unbelievable Benefits of Seeing A Chiropractor

Chiropractic care has helped countless individuals all over the world, and contrary to popular notion, the treatment isn’t restricted to neck and back pain. In this place, we’ll discuss the advantages of chiropractic care for teams and volleyball players.

Comprehending The Pressure

All the volleyball injuries are related to hands, elbows, wrists and shoulders. As an example, players usually have problems using the rotator-cuff as general motions of the sport impact it. Specialists consider these injuries could be avoided with physical training as well as other types of attention. Besides the shoulders, harms can extend to the rest of the entire body, too, including hip, neck and lower back. Some players often complain of pain in ankle and foot, too.

Horrible physical strain owing to the essence of the sport can be caused by beach volleyball. Those who play the sport on the shore are prone to regular injuries as they frequently play barefoot, which takes the vital cushioning for the feet away. The resting interval between games is frequently restricted, particularly throughout the training sessions.

Understanding The Advantages of Chiropractic Care

Professional teams frequently hire a volleyball chiropractor as a portion of the physical fitness section. The truth is, it’s possible to prevent plenty of the most popular injuries which might be noticed in the sport.

Volleyball chiropractors also work with sportsmen for certain harms. It’s not recommended to rely on painkillers and only medications for alleviation because one must seek entire treatment as an alternative to instant respite. Chiropractors frequently use other types of alternative treatment, for example spinal decompression cause entire healing and to remove the pain and cold laser therapy. For speeding up the entire healing process, players regularly seek the help of the chiropractor.

Seeing a chiropractor in Huntersville, NC may be wise in the event you are a newcomer to volleyball and having a difficult time coping together with the physical pain and tension. They are able to aid in performing aside from reducing pain. Do not miss on asking any questions during an appointment, if you have any, and make sure that you select an experienced practice.

Supplying an extensive variety of services for the alleviation of pain, anxiety and suffering, rehabfx gives those we serve an opportunity to get a better, more healthy lifestyle.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

Things to Consider While Locating A Chiropractor

With the number of individuals affected by back pain every year growing, so also does the amount of chiropractors. A lot of people aren’t certain what to consider when selecting a chiropractor that is good and we’ll give you some helpful guidance in regards to making the choice that is correct for you. Step one to understand the best way to pick a chiropractor that is good will be to understand if you’ll need one.

It’s usually the wrong placement of ligament, some bone or muscle that’s causing your back pain issue and this can be where a great chiropractor will have the ability to help and alleviate your suffering. Many chiropractors will focus on a discussion to discover your precise needs and to learn more about how they can assist you to let us begin with a couple easy methods to discover if your chiropractor is not bad.

It is a classic adage but you ought to look for truthfulness in a chiropractor. A fair chiropractor will urge the most economical place to purchase them instead of offering their own nutritional supplements if they urge which you take nutritional supplements. Many not-so-fair chiropractors offer a bundle of a set quantity of sessions and treatment to the patient. This really is a bad signal, particularly when they’ve to see how you’re reacting to any treatment up to now. If a bundle is offered before they will have an opportunity to discover your troubles, that is a certain signal that is awful. If the chiropractor understands they cannot help you and instead make reference to another specialist, that is a clear good sign and a honest strategy.

That is an excellent indication, if you learn about a chiropractor being urged by a friend or relative. Many chiropractors that are great do not have to advertise as an outstanding reputation has been built up by them from their previous and present customers. This really is the greatest indication which you have located an excellent chiropractor.

So it’s crucial that you understand before picking to work with one what they specialize in because distinct chiropractors use different techniques. The appropriate treatment in the appropriate spot is needed. Then that’s the area that will be treated if you’ve got an issue with a particular region of your back. In this situation, it is better to seek another opinion. The reality is which they cannot treat all ailments while many chiropractors need to keep any customers they will have. You should subsequently be referred to cope with this, if your chiropractor identifies any inherent issue that’s causing your back problem.

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Invisalign – Amazing Smile and Stylish Treatment

The days where you’d get laughed at and joked around by family and friends just due to teeth are finished! There are fascinating and new ways you could have your teeth without having to cope with all those prying eyes straightened. Invisible braces from Invisalign provider in OKC is an excellent way to undergo treatment particularly when you’re a professional or you’re aware about your looks. Invisalign is a modern, hi tech way of straightening teeth that aren’t only powerful but also unobtrusive.

About Invisalign: Invisalign is a way of straightening teeth which use removable aligners which can be custom made for your teeth. The aligners are made from clear plastic that’s not rough and are so not uncomfortable after you wear them. Some aligners is normally worn for fourteen days after which you may wear a fresh set of aligners. Invisalign works by transferring your teeth slowly and softly to the needed location.

Appointment: You must identify an Invisalign supplier if you are feeling that Invisalign is a choice which you want to try out. The orthodontist will guide you as to whether Invisalign is suitable in managing your case and will analyze your teeth. Should you be a great patient for Invisalign, the orthodontist will shoot images and x rays of your teeth. A 3D picture of your teeth will be created in preparing a treatment strategy for you by Invisalign, that may direct your orthodontist. You’ll be capable of seeing how your teeth will appear like at each phase of treatment up to the outcome.

Aligners: As you wear the aligners your teeth will start to shift to the necessary location. You will end up required every fourteen days to wear a brand new set of aligners. Your orthodontist will offer you the required set of aligners that may take you up to the time of the next appointment.

Care: Your aligners can clean by rinsing them off and brushing them softly. Ensure that you floss and brush your teeth daily to keep your oral health.

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Why Residential and Commercial Properties Want Professional Duct Cleaning?

Duct cleaning for homes can also be important just as routine maintenance of heating systems is crucial. That is not only a demand that is general, you will find several specific reasons unclean ducts can cause serious damage to its function & are dangerous for human well-being at the same time.

The atmosphere inside or around a house may not seem dirty, but may be contaminated with undetectable filth atoms which can not be seen until they’re collected in sums that are greater. Whenever the system is made to run, filthy atmosphere gets circulated through the house. Additionally, with time, as well as neglect of shifting AC filters, the operation of the HVAC system is changed as a result of improper cleaning of ducts. This is why it is vital to opt for air duct company for houses for professional services.

It is a proven study that unclean, filthy ducts can have serious consequences on the human well-being, although not only a generally accepted notion. It is often studied & discovered by Health authorities that concentration of dust & grime in houses is largely due to the filthy ducts and ports in HVAC systems. The effects of filthy ducts which are not cleaned for years of constant use can have its direct effect on lungs, nose and the eyes. Individuals with allergies are those that suffer the most due to these ducts that are foul. Likewise, there could be skin and respiratory -associated issues in this kind of environment. Selecting professionals in duct cleaning for cleaning service for houses, will result in improved airflow & unimpeded operation of the HVAC system. These professionals manual and use vacuum techniques.

In general, professional services of duct cleaning for houses will ensure a contaminant-free, healthy surroundings & trouble-free operation of the heat & cooling systems. Superb Normal Heat is an air duct heat and cleaning company in Vancouver.

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How Sedation Dentistry Can Be Beneficial For Those With Phobia

In regards to making a dentist appointment people who experience extreme anxiety may reap the benefits of a sedation dentistry. This Oklahoma City dentist that is trained uses his patients to quiet and help them relax during even the simplest process. Dentists who intend to use sedation in any kind are expected to finish additional instruction beyond dental school. This instruction instructs them the best way to administer emergency procedures that will be needed in case a patient has an adverse reaction, and particular kinds of sedatives, dangers and side effects related to the drugs.

You’ll find many advantages of sedation dentistry. You’ll likely reap the benefits of the techniques and processes of a sedation dentist if you’re among those people who cannot cope with the idea of stepping into a dentist’s office. Sedation dentistry – also called sleep dentistry – enables those of the most routine dental procedures with intense panic or worry, to see with the dentist for regular checkups with no panic that would plague them through the visit. Additionally, it enables those who don’t have any trouble going to the dentist, but need major dental work to put up with an extreme one time visit instead of coming in multiple times for various processes.

You’ll find three kinds of sedation dentistry. Determined by the kind of dental procedure being performed and the patient’s degree of anxiety, distinct degrees of sedation will be used. Inhalation sedation can gain those people who are extremely nervous about getting basic cleaning processes done. Nitrous oxide, also called laughing gas, is usually used. The patient continues to be conscious of everything but feels joyful and relaxed.

A sedation dentist may choose to administer oral medicines designed to rest the patient. Typically the patient can answer any questions the dentist inquires and continues to be conscious of the action around him.

The third & most extreme type of sedation is administered through IV into muscle or the blood stream. IV sedation can be used when the patient is actually terrified of dental appointments, or when a massive amount work must be done. Determined by the dosage of the sedation drug, the patient might or might not be conscious of what is happening around him. Before administering any drugs the sedation dentist will get a thorough medical history and a listing of current medicines.

Talk about the good thing about seeing an accredited sedation dentist if you experience dental phobia of any sort. Do not let your fear of dental procedures carry you from finding the dentist every six months for cleanings that are critical.

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Property Management Companies Remove Anxiety

Renting out your piece of real estate may be real cash cow as most landlords understand, but that cash flow usually comes with a tremendous concern. Midnight calls from tenants who’ve the hassle of marketing the house when you’ve got a vacancy take out lots of the pleasure of earning money off of leases, late lease payments which you must chase down, and overflowing toilets. One means to have the income while removing much of the anxiety would be to hire Re/Max Energy Property Management company.

These businesses work between. The renter will not even need to understand who you’re when you hire a property management company. While you have the power the company manages the day to day interactions with the renter. The company will manage the marketing for you if you’ve got a vacant unit. Additionally, the property management company will look after screening prospective renters. They’ll also manage the pre-move-in reviews and reviews required after a tenant moves out.

It is possible to step back watching the profits, once the unit is filled. If there exists a concern, communicating will be handled by the company with the renter. You won’t be called if this pipe explosions at the center of the night. The property management company will even make your rental payments to collect. The company will do what’s needed to accumulate if your tenant is making a payment. In some arrangements, the firm may also take over paying taxes, insurance, and the mortgage on the portion of property. You must do nothing but have after all of the invoices happen to be paid the income which is sent your way.

The primary variable that prevents some landlords is the price. These services will be paid for by you. You must consider the price against the period of time you’ll save time that you can subsequently use to pursue other income- appreciate the fruits of your investment work or just making efforts.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

Tricks For Learning Web Design

Even if you possess sufficient information about it, web design OKC may be a tough designing place to find a job for you. You need to possess a nicely strategy as it assists you in managing a a sleek web site with error-free before developing an internet site. Not just that, a suitable website design that is prepared is the secret to really have a beautiful web site for the visitors. Have you been considering learning to be a web designer that was fantastic? Are there many targets in your dish, but your insufficient understanding in website layout is maintaining you from from their website? This post may educate you on the things that you should be aware of to eventually become a web designer that is better.

Movie that was HTML-5 is placed to become the following standard for showing movies online and obviously, you need to provide yet another structure like expensive for people who have an older version as good as both a manner where consumers may supply your content via an HTML-5 structure. Stay away from so called “mystery meat navigation”. This includes utilizing alternative components for the website’s routing or unlabeled pictures. Most of the times, the customer has to mouse over the buttons to actually notice the things they do. Routing is best-kept simple. Use links over the top or over the remaining side of the webpage.

It might look pretty, but avoid from having a lot of cartoons in your website. Getting your revenue dash site flash, twist and turn might seem cool for you, but it’ll probably generate prospective audience a way. It creates your site seem amateurish which isn’t the information you would like to communicate when you include a lot of flamboyant dashes that way. Ensure your webpages all actually have names, and ensure they can be descriptive. A surprising variety of web pages out there are called “untitled document” or “new file”. This-not just completely ruins your Search Engine Optimization, because page names are weighted by search engines heavily when ranking websites, but in addition refuses visitants a good bit of info to recall your website.

Website design is a topic which you constantly need to keep educated on. Bearing this particular at heart, for those who have some friends which are also in to web site improvement then you are going to need to maintain with them in touch. It’s possible for you to trade any new info which you discover in terms of website design, so you’re both along with your sport. Make use of a toolbar on top to assist visitors get the information they want immediately in the event you have a few pages in your website. Contain details, so whenever they had like, they can talk to you. Headers needs to be observable and obvious, and sentences needs to be simple to study along with succinct.

Reduce the number of scrolling or clicking visitors need to do to get info. The more they have to browse to get the info they seek or a person must click, the much more likely they may be to to stop searching because of it. Plan for having a minimum of 400 words on each page by merging web pages of your website which have articles that drops below this amount of phrases. Ensure that your web site utilizes a a well that is consistent for the duration of. Some web sites alter typefaces without any style. This makes the information hard to procedure for visitors. Many websites, especially business web sites, may work staying with even, or fundamental fonts like Arial, Deck New Roman.

It’s critical that your entire web pages have names. Forgetting while creating your web site, to contain names may have devastating results. The greatest cause is the fact that it makes your site look unprofessional when there is also, equally on the web page itself, and no name on an internet search results page. When ascertaining the information of your web site, research engines like google also put major focus on names. Don’t forget to use key words, and also make your names illustrative. Which document types you use for pictures effects your site ‘s load times. Your images should typically be JPEGs or GIFs. They just take up a significant amount of disk space even though MBP and PNG documents may be the choices for internet images. The bigger images can be converted by you right into a more manageable dimensions to aid your audiences possess a user-experience that is better.

Evaluation frequently and early. As a readers might in functionality evaluations early in the design procedure, you must make use of your web site. Ensure that you maintain testing and enhancing it as your web site is growing. Make an effort to ensure that any audio or images which you’re linking to is hosted in your own personal web server. Don’t hot-link to another web site pictures. This is considered as bandwidth theft also it may place you in breach of a copyright also. It is not worth the hazard.

While your website is designed by you, remember there is no need to utilize all the area that is available on every webpage. When you use all accessible pixels, the end result could be an overwhelmingly messy web site. Splitting your website’s components up with area that is empty, may allow it to be more easy for people to pick out what components execute what function. Area may give as much worth as advice. Utilizing the the equipment from a sponsor to create your website is very good for lay out that is basic, however do not totally use them them. It’s perfect that you just include a feature of style and uniqueness to your own web site. This means that you want come up with fresh style components which are not accessible through the use of the supplied choices of the WYSIWYG editor of the host’s.

Hosting your personal website isn’t a good idea, also in the event that you have the cash to get it done. Do just as much of the design yourself as you are able, but in the event that you employ anyone to sponsor it for you personally, you you will not have to be concerned about protection that is fundamental. Start with creating smaller web sites, so prior to starting an important website, you can observe your strengths and flaws. Generate webpages that build from that point as you acquire self-confidence, and include plaintext to start.

As a website is designed by you, appear to your own market. Ask them what is not unimportant in the websites they enjoy. You can be helped by this with all the various features available on your own website along with the style. Considering guidance out of your goal guests can let your website be more relevant. Now you know what it will take to to create a website that was great, have you been assured to begin now? Retain this informative article as a useful guide if you would like to take on a fresh website-design job, in the event you ever want some technical or ethical support.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

Looking For Acupuncture Care?

Individuals are understanding they have actual states that promote their everyday lifestyles, as the range of health-related analysis enlarges. But also comes more treatments that a lot of people are beginning to eventually become fascinated in. Acupuncture service in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is where you can find a powerful method to cut back pain and other signs that they fight with daily, these techniques that’s expanding. The exercise is clearly an alternate approach that’s, Asian origins that are aged. By utilizing needles that are very slender, an acupuncturist intends to excite different points on the human body which might be believed to enhance and also right imbalances in your body. Several individuals can let you know the training that is exceptional continues to be in decreasing the consequences of the signs, a leading element.

Your physician will most likely have you look for different forms of therapy so that they can locate what is best suited for you personally when you have been identified using an ailment which you find tough. It generally is sensible to investigate your options all as no two individuals are exactly alike. You could not be aware of how successful acupuncture in Oklahoma as well as additional types of choice medication may possibly show to be. Generally, people will begin seeking added types of therapy after other approaches have proved to not be effective. But alternative strategies can be beneficial in decreasing therapy costs at the same time. For all those people that have attempted many kinds of drugs, purchasing remedy that cause less side effects, and may be more affordable is generally a no brainer.

In the event you are interested in trying it as an answer for your wellness issues or do not understand much about acupuncture, your physician might be a great spot to begin. Several people of the medical knowledge base have developed more receptive to alternative approaches to clinical therapy in the last few of decades, and yours might not be unable to answer several queries as well as put you in contact. Yet another alternative that is clever would be to have some time to do a bit of study on the area. As you find out about acupuncture in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma you should not be unable to determine if it could be an excellent option for the health-related problems. Getting the best therapy is a crucial part of figuring out the best way to deal with various illnesses.

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What can an Orthodontist do to help?

Understand the type of service dental orthodontist provide is not very common. For those who have misaligned teeth as well as other dental problems need to talk to an orthodontist. Orthodontist in Oklahoma City – Dr. Larson is a specialist who corrects and stops teeth and jaws from dental issues. Dental problems may trigger low-self-esteem and insecurity problems for a lot of individuals plus a person ‘s capability to talk and chew foods can be affected by them. Teeth that are misaligned may also snore, snoring, and other breathing difficulties. An orthodontist can assist you to correct several issues over-bites, like cross-bites, under much more, and morsels.

When you see with an orthodontist, he can shoot x-rays and have you ever bite down on a form to decide on the position of your teeth. The orthodontist may design you personally a therapy plan. This might include braces, retainers, or alternative dental methods. In instances that are serious, orthodontists must to interrupt the jawbones and line their sufferers’ teeth close so they are aligned. Dental issues that orthodontists handle may result due to several variables. As an example, dental issues often run-in your family. Second, when their teeth are lost by infants prematurely, their teeth may become over-crowded after. Other motives include dental caries, traumas, and mishaps. These variables influence the construction of the mouth as well as tooth.

An orthodontist can help by analyzing your teeth, you avoid dental issues. It’s worth observing when they’re seven years of age, that children should have their very first examination particularly when there is a family history of crooked or misaligned teeth. It might sound right for you yourself to do study on the web, before you see. Understand practices that are orthodontic on the web. Simply be sure to see reputable sites offering precise information about orthodontic processes that are typical.

Remember that the insurer might insure the whole or portion of the price of your therapy in the event that you must correct dental problems. Insurance firms generally spend mo-Re in the event an orthodontist that’s in their community is visited by the individual. In the event that you must you can even submit an application for funding using a financial institution or lender. Additionally, some orthodontists provide repayment plans, which enable their patients to cover services over a time period. One other neat thing about orthodontists is the fact that a lot of these offer free consults plus they are going to usually supply their clients about the type of treatments are essential in the first consultation with the opinion.

One can be found by you by performing study on the web, and assessing the telephone directory, on-line sites. You may even wish to take a look at the reviews on the web before a choice is made by you. Ensure he allows you to feel comfy before you select. You also ought to locate an orthodontist which provides various other goods as well as retainers. The specialist-you decide on should utilize the most recent methods and gear in the event you would like excellent results. In the event that you just follow these suggestions, you realize the outcomes you would like and will possess an excellent experience.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default
New Technique ID’s Brain Regions Tied to Epileptic Seizures

New Technique ID’s Brain Regions Tied to Epileptic Seizures

An international team of researchers has developed a new approach to help identify which brain regions are most responsible for each epileptic patient’s seizures, according to a new study published in the journal PLOS Computational Biology. The strategy could help reduce or stop seizures by allowing surgeons to target specific brain areas for treatment.

“What is truly exciting about our findings is the opportunity that such a method offers to identify the specific brain regions involved in the generation of seizures, which in turn can provide guidance on how to optimize surgical interventions to stop seizures,” said lead strategist Marinho Lopes of the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom.

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects about one out of every 100 people around the world. Although medications can often successfully control the seizures that characterize the disease, about one third of patients do not respond to these drugs and require further treatment. Some patients receive surgery to remove brain regions that cause seizures, but only about half of these surgeries lead to long-term freedom from seizures.

To help determine which areas of the brain are contributing most to a particular patient’s seizures, surgeons have typically examined electroencephalograms (EEGs), which reveal electrical activity in different regions of the brain. In the new study, a team of scientists and mathematicians, led by Professor John Terry of Biomedical Modelling at the University of Exeter, sought to improve on this method.

The researchers first evaluated a database of EEG recordings taken from 16 patients with epilepsy who had already undergone surgery for their seizures. The team discovered that certain brain regions showed greater connections between each other and within themselves than did other regions. This well-connected network is called a “rich club.”

Using a mathematical modeling approach, the research team then predicted that targeting rich clubs by removing the particularly well-connected nodes would be able to reduce the number of seizures experienced by a patient.

Real-world clinical data on these 16 patients confirmed this prediction: When surgery removed a greater proportion of the rich club, which is distinct in each patient, patients experienced fewer or no seizures in the long-term.

Next, the researchers plan to confirm these findings using data from more patients. They also want to investigate whether this approach can be improved by integrating information from additional brain imaging techniques.

Source: PLOS

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Workplace Flexibility Key to Helping Women Maintain Careers After Childbirth

Workplace Flexibility Key to Helping Women Maintain Careers After Childbirth

Flexibility in the workplace may be key to helping women stay in the labor force and maintain their personal career paths after childbirth, according to a new study at the University of Kent in England.

In fact, the researchers say that a flexible workplace is the most significant preventer of women dropping out of the workforce after having their first child.

The study also has significant implications for the debate on the gender pay gap, say the authors. They note that flexible working conditions can help eliminate some of the negative consequences of the “motherhood penalty,” by allowing new moms to remain in human-capital-intensive jobs, which can in turn help close the gender wage gap.

The study, led by Dr. Heejung Chung, of the University’s School of Social Policy, Sociology, and Social Research, found that women who were able to use flexitime were only half as likely to reduce their hours after the birth of their child.

This effect was especially pronounced in women who used flexitime prior to the birth of their child as well as after, the researchers found.

The findings show that more than half of the women in the study sample reduced their working hours after the birth of their child, while less than a quarter of women who were able to use flexitime reduced their hours.

The researchers found that it is the use of flexitime — rather than perceived access to it — that appears to matter most. The researchers found that for mothers with newborn babies, perceived access to flexitime in itself was not enough to tackle the work-life balance demands they were faced with. The flexibility needs to be enacted to really make a difference.

The study will have implications for the debate over the UK’s gender pay gap, say the authors. “Flexible working may help alleviate some of the negative consequences of the motherhood penalty, by allowing mothers to remain in human-capital-intensive jobs, which can help diminish the gender wage gap,” write the researchers.

Furthermore, allowing new moms to maintain their employment status will have major implications for retaining human capital for companies and societies as a whole, the authors conclude.

The study titled “Women’s employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking” is published in the journal Human Relations.

Source: University of Kent

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Study Discovers Brain Adapts to Biological Risk of Bipolar Disorder

Study Discovers Brain Adapts to Biological Risk of Bipolar Disorder

Researchers have identified a brain mechanism in siblings of bipolar patients that makes them resilient to the disorder.

According to researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, the results suggest that the brain is able to adapt to the biological risk for bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks, affects approximately 5.7 million Americans age 18 and older every year.

The disease tends to run in families: Siblings of patients with bipolar disorder are 10 times more likely to develop the illness, compared with the general population, researchers noted. However, most people with a family history of bipolar disorder will not develop the illness, they added.

To identify what makes people at risk for bipolar disorder resilient, investigators examined functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from 78 patients with bipolar disorder, 64 of their unaffected siblings, and a control group of 41 non-relatives who did not have the disorder.

While the siblings showed genetic evidence of abnormal connectivity in brain regions involved in sensation and movement that has been linked to bipolar disease in other studies, they compensated by having hyper-connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) of the brain, according to the study’s findings.

This hyper-connectivity was absent in the group with bipolar disorder.

The DMN is a network of interacting brain regions known to have activity highly correlated with each other and distinct from other networks in the brain.

“Most of the risk factors for bipolar disorder, including genetic risk, early childhood adversity, and trauma, are not modifiable,” said the study’s senior author Sophia Frangou, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of psychiatry at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

“By contrast, this research shows that the brain can modify its connectivity to overcome biological adversity. This gives hope that we can harness this natural brain potential to develop preventive interventions.”

Based on these results, the researchers are conducting a series of follow-up experiments to test whether it is possible to rewire at-risk patients’ brains by simple computerized tasks that enhance brain connectivity.

Initial results suggest that simple interventions may restore the functional architecture of the brain and reduce the severity of symptoms in patients, they say.

The study was published in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

Source: The Mount Sinai Hospital/Mount Sinai School of Medicine

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Anti-Drinking Campaigns Aimed at Young People Often Backfire

Anti-Drinking Campaigns Aimed at Young People Often Backfire

Campaigns designed to persuade young people from so-called “bolting,” or chugging, an alcoholic drink appear to be completely ineffective, and in certain cases, may even make them more likely to do it, according to new research published in the journal Addiction Research and Theory.

For the study, researchers analyzed participants’ reactions to a poster warning of the consequences of bolting (rapidly drinking an alcoholic drink), and they discovered that the message had virtually no effect on people’s future intentions.

Furthermore, when a statement was added to the poster expressing how other people disapprove of bolting, it made participants want to bolt in the future. However, when the statement was changed to a message saying that most people “do not bolt drinks on a night out,” the message was far more effective.

“Many young people overestimate the extent to which their peers both approve of and engage in risky drinking behaviours,” said study author Dr. Joanne Smith of the University of Exeter. “One way to tackle risky drinking is to try to correct these misperceptions through health campaigns, such as posters.”

“In our research, we wanted to explore what kinds of messages are more effective in changing people’s intentions to bolt. Our results highlight the potentially harmful effects of exposure to what’s called an ‘injunctive norm’ — a message about the approval or disapproval of others. Meanwhile, a ‘descriptive norm’ — telling people what others do rather than what they think — had a positive impact.”

Overall, the research consisted of three experiments, in which 221 volunteers saw the poster or did not, and then either received or did not receive messages about what their peers thought or how they behaved.

In one experiment, some participants received an accurate message saying 70% of their peers “disapprove of bolting,” and in another some received an accurate message saying 65% of their peers “do not bolt drinks on a night out.”

Next, all the participants completed identical questionnaires to gauge their perceptions of group norms related to bolting, as well as their own intentions to do it in the future.

The researchers point out that beliefs about how other people behave are often the “best predictor” in terms of general drinking behavior and binge drinking. However, they say that using these beliefs to change behavior needs to be done carefully to ensure campaigns have the desired effect.

“This demonstrates how careful we need to be in selecting the right message in campaigns, and evaluating them before wider dissemination, as poorly designed campaigns, however well-intentioned, can backfire,” said Professor Charles Abraham of the University of Exeter Medical School.

Source: University of Exeter

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Young People with Chronic Illness Three Times More Likely to Attempt Suicide

Young People with Chronic Illness Three Times More Likely to Attempt Suicide

Teenagers and young adults living with a chronic illness, such as asthma, diabetes, or Crohn’s disease, may be at greater risk for mental illness and are about three times more likely to attempt suicide compared to their healthy peers, according to a new study from the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada.

“Having a chronic illness may increase the risk for the development of psychiatric disorder, which in turn, increases risk for suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts,” said researcher Mark Ferro, a professor in Waterloo’s Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.

“Having both a chronic illness and psychiatric disorder has a compounding effect, further increasing the odds of suicidal thoughts.”

The findings show that in young people between the ages of 15 and 30, having a chronic illness increases a young person’s odds of attempting suicide by 363 percent, increase suicidal thoughts by 28 percent and increase plans to die by suicide by 134 percent.

The researchers also found that the risk for suicide attempt is highest just after diagnosis of a chronic illness and emphasize the need for prevention and intervention measures during this vital time.

“Evidence suggests risk for suicide attempts is highest soon after young people are diagnosed with a chronic illness. There is a critical window of opportunity for prevention and continued monitoring,” said Ferro.

In addition, young people living with a chronic illness are more likely to suffer from a mental illness which may contribute to thoughts of suicide.

The findings suggest the need for physicians and other health-care providers to consider the link between chronic illness and mental health disorders, and to put in place the appropriate preventive interventions, said Ferro.

“For many young people with chronic conditions, their physical illnesses take precedence in doctor’s visits leaving little, if any, time for mental health concerns,” said Ferro. “While the idea that there is no health without mental health is becoming more pervasive, we still have a long way to go.”

Suicide is a major public health concern and one of the leading causes of death in the United States. In fact, it is the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults among people aged 25 to 34 and the third-leading cause of death among people aged 15 to 24.

The new findings are published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.

Source: University of Waterloo

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Eye Contact Influences Child Anxiety

Eye Contact Influences Child Anxiety

Adults use eye contact to obtain social cues to help determine the emotions of others. We then use this knowledge to make decisions on how we react to the other person. However, eye contact is often not established when an adult is anxious.

While the adult responses to eye contact are well established, little is known about eye gazing patterns in children. Accordingly, a new study investigated how children use eye contact and the consequences which result from the behavior.

University of California, Riverside researchers discovered that anxious children tend to avoid making eye contact, and this has consequences for how they experience fear.

The shorter and less frequently they look at the eyes of others, the more likely they are to be afraid of them, even when there may be no reason to be, explains lead author Kalina Michalska, an assistant professor of psychology.

Her study, “Anxiety Symptoms and Children’s Eye Gaze During Fear Learning,” appears in The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

“Looking at someone’s eyes helps us understand whether a person is feeling sad, angry, fearful, or surprised. As adults, we then make decisions about how to respond and what to do next. But, we know much less about eye patterns in children – so, understanding those patterns can help us learn more about the development of social learning,” Michalska said.

Researchers addressed three main questions:

    1. Do children spend more time looking at the eyes of a face that’s paired with something threatening, but not expressing an emotion at that moment?

    2. Would children who were more anxious avoid looking at the eye region, similar to what has previously been observed in adults?

    3. Would avoiding eye contact affect how afraid children were of the face they saw?

To examine these questions, Michalska and the team of researchers showed 82 children, 9 to 13 years old, images of two women’s faces on a computer screen.

The computer was equipped with an eye tracking device that allowed them to measure where on the screen children were looking, and for how long. The participants were originally shown each of the two women a total of four times.

Next, one of the images was paired with a loud scream and a fearful expression, and the other one was not. At the end, children saw both faces again without any sound or scream.

“The question we were interested in was whether children would spend more time looking at the eyes of a face that was paired with a scream than the face that was not paired with a scream, during that second phase,” Michalska said.

“We examined participants’ eye contact when the face was not expressing any emotions, to determine if children make more eye contact with someone who is associated with something bad or threatening, even when they are not expressing fear at that moment.

We also looked at whether children’s anxiety scores were related to how long children made eye contact.”

The researchers believe three major conclusions can be drawn from the study:

    1. All children spent more time looking at the eyes of a face that was paired with the loud scream than the face that was not paired with the scream, suggesting they pay attention to potential threats even in the absence of outward cues.

    2. Children who were more anxious avoided eye contact during all three phases of the experiment, for both kinds of faces. This had consequences for how afraid they were of the faces.

    3. The more children avoided eye contact, the more afraid they were of the faces.

The findings suggest that children spend more time looking at the eyes of a face when previously paired with something frightening. Investigators believe this means a child will pay more attention to potentially threatening information as a way to learn more about the situation and plan what to do next.

However, anxious children tend to avoid making eye contact, which leads to greater fear experience.

Even though avoiding eye contact may reduce anxiety in the short term, researchers believe that over time, children may be missing out on important social information. This in turn may lead a child to be fearful of a person, even though the person is no longer threatening or scary.

Source: University of California Riverside

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More Older Adults Embrace Social Media but Many Still Fearful of Privacy

More Older Adults Embrace Social Media but Many Still Fearful of Privacy

Older adults use social media so that they can keep track of family and friends. Some continue to resist the communication channel, however, because they worried that unsolicited viewers will see their content.

In a new study, Penn State researchers discovered older adults use sites such as Facebook to keep in touch with family and friends, monitor other’s updates, and as a means to share photos.

Nevertheless, some seniors listed privacy, as well as the triviality of some posts, as reasons they stay away from the site.

“The biggest concern is privacy and it’s not about revealing too much, it’s that they assume that too many random people out there can get their hands on their information,” said S. Shyam Sundar, distinguished professor of communications and co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory, Penn State.

“Control is really what privacy is all about. It’s about the degree to which you feel that you have control over how your information is shared or circulated.”

The researchers believe Facebook developers should focus on privacy settings to tap into the senior market. The study is available online and will appear in a forthcoming issue of Telematics and Informatics.

“Clear privacy control tools are needed to promote older adults’ Facebook use,” said Eun Hwa Jung, assistant professor of communications and new media, National University of Singapore.

“In particular, we think that privacy settings and alerts need to be highly visible, especially when they [older adults] are sharing information.”

While older adults are leery about who is viewing their posts, they enjoy using the site to look at pictures and read posts from friends and family, according to the researchers.

“I am more of a Facebook voyeur, I just look to see what my friends are putting out there,” one participant told the researchers.

“I haven’t put anything on there in years. I don’t need to say, ‘I’m having a great lunch!’ and things like that, I don’t understand that kind of communication.”

According to Sundar, another issue that keeps seniors from using social media is their concern over the triviality of the conversation found on a site such as Facebook.

“They believe that people reporting on the mundane and unremarkable things that they did — brushing their teeth, or what they had for lunch — is not worth talking about,” said Sundar.

“That’s an issue, especially for this generation.”

Nevertheless, researchers believe older users could be a significant resource to help drive the growth of Facebook and other social media sites.

“The 55-plus folks were slow initially in adopting social media, but now they are one of the largest growing sectors for social media adoption,” explains Sundar.

The researchers suggest that Facebook is helping to serve as a communications bridge between the generations and that young people are prompting their older family members to join the site.

“In particular, unlike younger people, most older adults were encouraged by younger family members to join Facebook so that they could communicate,” said Jung.

“This implies that older adults’ interaction via social networking sites can contribute to effective intergenerational communication.”

In the study, researchers recruited 46 participants who were between 65 and 95 years old to take part in in-depth interviews. The group included 17 male participants and 29 female participants, all of whom had a college degree. The participants also said they used a computer in their daily lives.

A total of 20 Facebook users and 26 non-users participated in the study.

If participants had a Facebook account, researchers asked them about their experience and their motivations for joining. Participants who did not use Facebook were asked why they did not join.

A limitation of the study was the fact that all participants lived in a retirement home. As such, future research efforts should review the perception and use of Facebook by seniors who live alone.

Source: Penn State

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Less Prenatal Stress Reduces Child Behavioral Problems

Less Prenatal Stress Reduces Child Behavioral Problems

Parenting in itself is a complicated task. Moreover, the challenge is dramatically exacerbated when a beloved child begins to show signs of a behavioral disorder.

New research suggests expectant mothers may want to consider stress management as a way to lower the risk of problematic behavior in their offspring.

Investigators from the University of Ottawa examined data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and found that mothers who experience significant prenatal stress may be increasing their child’s risk for behavioral issues.

“Mothers who are exposed to high levels of stress during pregnancy have kids who are more than twice as likely to have chronic symptoms of hyperactivity and conduct disorder,” explains Dr. Ian Colman, an associate professor at the University of Ottawa’s Faculty of Medicine.

“Hyperactivity is a symptom of ADHD, and about 10 percent of school-age children are affected by ADHD or conduct disorder,” he said. “These disorders can lead to poor results in school and difficulties in their relationships with family and friends.”

Behavioral disorders such as those seen by the researchers are characterized by aggressive or antisocial behavior, high activity levels, and difficulty inhibiting behavior.

The conditions are also associated with school failure, substance use/abuse, and criminal activity, according to the paper which appears in the journal Biological Psychiatry.

A mother’s stress can alter brain development in the fetus, and it is believed these changes may be long-lasting or permanent, said Dr. Colman.

The research approach was unique as investigators studied the effects of specific stressors on participants, as opposed to gauging overall stress levels.

Participants reported stressful events, such as problems at work, the illness of a relative, or an argument with a partner, family or friend.

“Generally speaking, we found that the higher the stress, the higher the symptoms,” Dr. Colman said.

“We can’t avoid most stressful events in our lives and since we can’t always prevent them, the focus should be on helping mothers manage stress in order to give their children the best start in life.”

Source: University of Ottawa

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Activity Patterns May Predict if Depression Responds to Ketamine

Activity Patterns May Predict if Depression Responds to Ketamine

Monitoring a depressed patient’s daily activity patterns before trying the drug ketamine — being tested as a fast-acting antidepressant — may help physicians determine whether the drug will be effective or not, according to a new study published in the journal Biological Psychiatry.

During a depressive episode, many people experience reduced energy, a feeling of being slowed down and having less interest in activities. As their mood lifts, energy and activity return to their usual levels.

In the study, patients whose depressive symptoms improved in response to ketamine showed a particular level of activity before trying the drug: more activity earlier in the day and less activity later in the day. This finding suggests that activity patterns may help identify patients who would benefit from the drug.

“These findings are the first clinical results to suggest that trait-like circadian activity patterns are associated with rapid mood response to ketamine,” said first author Dr. Wallace Duncan from the Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

For the study, the researchers used wristwatch activity monitors on 51 patients to examine measures of circadian timekeeping systems, including the timing and levels of activity. All of the patients had either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, and all had depressive symptoms that had not responded to any previous treatments.

The findings show that patients who responded to a single infusion of ketamine initially typically had more activity earlier in the day and lower activity later in the day than patients who did not respond to ketamine.

“In other words, their daily activity clock was shifted forward,” said Dr. John Krystal, editor of Biological Psychiatry.

Those patients who responded to ketamine also had advance-shifted timing of their activity on the first day after the treatment, and increased overall activity levels on the third day, consistent with the notion that activity levels are part of the clinical response to ketamine.

Altered measures of circadian timekeeping on the third day suggest that changes in circadian circuits may mediate ketamine’s continued effects on mood.

Furthermore, the differences in activity levels before and after treatment suggest biological differences in the circadian systems that regulate activity between people who respond to the drug and those who don’t. The researchers suggest that these underlying differences may help predict ketamine’s effects on mood.

“It would be nice if daily patterns of activity could be used clinically to identify people who might respond to ketamine and to monitor clinical improvement,” said Krystal.

According to Duncan, the findings are also important because they show that rapid-acting treatments such as ketamine can provide key insights into the associations between sleep and circadian rhythms, activity, and mood response.

The unique activity produced by ketamine suggests that the clock-gene mechanisms that control circadian rhythms may be linked to the type of depression that responds to ketamine.

In addition, depressive symptom scores were linked to decreased activity and increased sleep quality on the first night after the infusion, indicating that improved sleep quality may be key to ketamine’s rapid mood effects.

Source: Elsevier

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Hormones Can Influence Competitive Emotions

Hormones Can Influence Competitive Emotions

Competitive situations can lead to a strong display of feelings, including the chance of heated arguments and disputes. However, as emotions get hot, not everyone reacts in the same way.

A new study finds that men respond differently to women, and the reactions of individuals are dissimilar to those of groups of persons.

In the research, psychologists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) examined the correlations between competitiveness, aggression and hormones.

Participants in a laboratory study were required to master competitive tasks over 10 rounds. They competed against each other either as individuals or as teams, and one side lost the competition while the other side won.

Participants were allowed to give full rein to their aggressive impulses during the competition.

For this purpose, at the beginning of each round, they were asked to specify how loud an unpleasant noise would be that the opponent would be required to listen to through headphones if they lost the round.

Saliva samples were collected from the participants prior to and after the competition in order to document changes to hormone levels.

Dr. Oliver Schultheiss and Dr. Jonathan Oxford found that men tended to behave more aggressively than women, that losers were more aggressive than winners, and that teams were more aggressive than individuals.

Furthermore, the researchers also detected a correlation between aggression and levels of the stress hormone cortisol; the more aggressively a person behaved, the lower their cortisol level was.

The study appears in the journal PLOS ONE.

“Our results show that the usual suspects are the ones who become aggressive — namely participants who are male and frustrated.

“But our analysis also revealed that it was easier for participants who were part of a team to attack others than it was for individuals. At the same time, elevation of stress hormones when encountering a threat that cannot be mastered is in actual fact associated with less aggression,” explains Schultheiss.

A unique aspect of the study included close inspection of female subjects.

Interestingly, researcher’s discovered the hormonal reaction to victory or defeat that occurred in women or female teams was significantly dependent on their personal thirst for power.

Women with a particularly marked thirst for power had higher levels of the sex hormones testosterone and estradiol after a victory than after a defeat.

This reaction was not recorded in women who have a less pronounced power-orientated outlook. Experts believe this hormonal reaction is the reason dominant behavior in women is intensified by a victory, and then subdued by a defeat.

Source: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU)

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