The Psychology Behind The Smile

Wearing a Healthy Smile Says A Lot About A Person

clean teeth - healthy smileSome smiles are natural while others are fake. There are genuine smiles that show gleaming white teeth, while other smiles are a little more reserved, possibly hiding poor dental care from others. There are also those smiles that are clearly fake and miserable, forced through with effort and strain. Then there are the polite like smiles that are often more like a grimace. These smiles can indicate embarrassment as much as happiness.

A genuine bellowing laugh can increase your heart rate and positively impact your  breathing pattern, while also lowering your blood pressure.

Smiling is a social gesture that can indicate various emotions. When people don’t smile often it can be a sign of unhappiness. Some people are very happy but tend not to smile possibly because of yellow teeth stained from smoking or drinking coffee, or possibly missing teeth or rotted teeth. There are short term solution that can fix issues of discoloration like visiting a dentist.

Other issues such as depression can be treated medically by prescription or through regular visits with a licensed psychologist. The psychology behind a smile can be speak volumes about a persons mental health. Mental health can be effected by something as simple as crooked teeth. Someone with a mouth full of crooked teeth may suffer from a lack of self confidence and  could feel insecure about showing their teeth. This then ends up effecting them and their daily lives, almost living as a prisoner of their own smile. This can have long lasting psychological effects on a person and there should be an effort to correct this if possible.

Smiling also happens to be one of the most universal languages on the planet. healthy baby smile

Babies who are born blind know to smile the same as babies that are born with site. Smiling is seen less in people with power then it is seen with the poor or less fortunate. Smiling can be used as a from of body language to send a message to another. Smiling is more universal than any other physical gesture like hand shakes and hugs.

Smiling can improve the health and happiness of a person. Make a conscious effort daily to smile more and make others smile.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

The Unbelievable Benefits of Seeing A Chiropractor

Chiropractic care has helped countless individuals all over the world, and contrary to popular notion, the treatment isn’t restricted to neck and back pain. In this place, we’ll discuss the advantages of chiropractic care for teams and volleyball players.

Comprehending The Pressure

All the volleyball injuries are related to hands, elbows, wrists and shoulders. As an example, players usually have problems using the rotator-cuff as general motions of the sport impact it. Specialists consider these injuries could be avoided with physical training as well as other types of attention. Besides the shoulders, harms can extend to the rest of the entire body, too, including hip, neck and lower back. Some players often complain of pain in ankle and foot, too.

Horrible physical strain owing to the essence of the sport can be caused by beach volleyball. Those who play the sport on the shore are prone to regular injuries as they frequently play barefoot, which takes the vital cushioning for the feet away. The resting interval between games is frequently restricted, particularly throughout the training sessions.

Understanding The Advantages of Chiropractic Care

Professional teams frequently hire a volleyball chiropractor as a portion of the physical fitness section. The truth is, it’s possible to prevent plenty of the most popular injuries which might be noticed in the sport.

Volleyball chiropractors also work with sportsmen for certain harms. It’s not recommended to rely on painkillers and only medications for alleviation because one must seek entire treatment as an alternative to instant respite. Chiropractors frequently use other types of alternative treatment, for example spinal decompression cause entire healing and to remove the pain and cold laser therapy. For speeding up the entire healing process, players regularly seek the help of the chiropractor.

Seeing a chiropractor in Huntersville, NC may be wise in the event you are a newcomer to volleyball and having a difficult time coping together with the physical pain and tension. They are able to aid in performing aside from reducing pain. Do not miss on asking any questions during an appointment, if you have any, and make sure that you select an experienced practice.

Supplying an extensive variety of services for the alleviation of pain, anxiety and suffering, rehabfx gives those we serve an opportunity to get a better, more healthy lifestyle.

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Things to Consider While Locating A Chiropractor

With the number of individuals affected by back pain every year growing, so also does the amount of chiropractors. A lot of people aren’t certain what to consider when selecting a chiropractor that is good and we’ll give you some helpful guidance in regards to making the choice that is correct for you. Step one to understand the best way to pick a chiropractor that is good will be to understand if you’ll need one.

It’s usually the wrong placement of ligament, some bone or muscle that’s causing your back pain issue and this can be where a great chiropractor will have the ability to help and alleviate your suffering. Many chiropractors will focus on a discussion to discover your precise needs and to learn more about how they can assist you to let us begin with a couple easy methods to discover if your chiropractor is not bad.

It is a classic adage but you ought to look for truthfulness in a chiropractor. A fair chiropractor will urge the most economical place to purchase them instead of offering their own nutritional supplements if they urge which you take nutritional supplements. Many not-so-fair chiropractors offer a bundle of a set quantity of sessions and treatment to the patient. This really is a bad signal, particularly when they’ve to see how you’re reacting to any treatment up to now. If a bundle is offered before they will have an opportunity to discover your troubles, that is a certain signal that is awful. If the chiropractor understands they cannot help you and instead make reference to another specialist, that is a clear good sign and a honest strategy.

That is an excellent indication, if you learn about a chiropractor being urged by a friend or relative. Many chiropractors that are great do not have to advertise as an outstanding reputation has been built up by them from their previous and present customers. This really is the greatest indication which you have located an excellent chiropractor.

So it’s crucial that you understand before picking to work with one what they specialize in because distinct chiropractors use different techniques. The appropriate treatment in the appropriate spot is needed. Then that’s the area that will be treated if you’ve got an issue with a particular region of your back. In this situation, it is better to seek another opinion. The reality is which they cannot treat all ailments while many chiropractors need to keep any customers they will have. You should subsequently be referred to cope with this, if your chiropractor identifies any inherent issue that’s causing your back problem.

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Invisalign – Amazing Smile and Stylish Treatment

The days where you’d get laughed at and joked around by family and friends just due to teeth are finished! There are fascinating and new ways you could have your teeth without having to cope with all those prying eyes straightened. Invisible braces from Invisalign provider in OKC is an excellent way to undergo treatment particularly when you’re a professional or you’re aware about your looks. Invisalign is a modern, hi tech way of straightening teeth that aren’t only powerful but also unobtrusive.

About Invisalign: Invisalign is a way of straightening teeth which use removable aligners which can be custom made for your teeth. The aligners are made from clear plastic that’s not rough and are so not uncomfortable after you wear them. Some aligners is normally worn for fourteen days after which you may wear a fresh set of aligners. Invisalign works by transferring your teeth slowly and softly to the needed location.

Appointment: You must identify an Invisalign supplier if you are feeling that Invisalign is a choice which you want to try out. The orthodontist will guide you as to whether Invisalign is suitable in managing your case and will analyze your teeth. Should you be a great patient for Invisalign, the orthodontist will shoot images and x rays of your teeth. A 3D picture of your teeth will be created in preparing a treatment strategy for you by Invisalign, that may direct your orthodontist. You’ll be capable of seeing how your teeth will appear like at each phase of treatment up to the outcome.

Aligners: As you wear the aligners your teeth will start to shift to the necessary location. You will end up required every fourteen days to wear a brand new set of aligners. Your orthodontist will offer you the required set of aligners that may take you up to the time of the next appointment.

Care: Your aligners can clean by rinsing them off and brushing them softly. Ensure that you floss and brush your teeth daily to keep your oral health.

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Why Residential and Commercial Properties Want Professional Duct Cleaning?

Duct cleaning for homes can also be important just as routine maintenance of heating systems is crucial. That is not only a demand that is general, you will find several specific reasons unclean ducts can cause serious damage to its function & are dangerous for human well-being at the same time.

The atmosphere inside or around a house may not seem dirty, but may be contaminated with undetectable filth atoms which can not be seen until they’re collected in sums that are greater. Whenever the system is made to run, filthy atmosphere gets circulated through the house. Additionally, with time, as well as neglect of shifting AC filters, the operation of the HVAC system is changed as a result of improper cleaning of ducts. This is why it is vital to opt for air duct company for houses for professional services.

It is a proven study that unclean, filthy ducts can have serious consequences on the human well-being, although not only a generally accepted notion. It is often studied & discovered by Health authorities that concentration of dust & grime in houses is largely due to the filthy ducts and ports in HVAC systems. The effects of filthy ducts which are not cleaned for years of constant use can have its direct effect on lungs, nose and the eyes. Individuals with allergies are those that suffer the most due to these ducts that are foul. Likewise, there could be skin and respiratory -associated issues in this kind of environment. Selecting professionals in duct cleaning for cleaning service for houses, will result in improved airflow & unimpeded operation of the HVAC system. These professionals manual and use vacuum techniques.

In general, professional services of duct cleaning for houses will ensure a contaminant-free, healthy surroundings & trouble-free operation of the heat & cooling systems. Superb Normal Heat is an air duct heat and cleaning company in Vancouver.

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How Sedation Dentistry Can Be Beneficial For Those With Phobia

In regards to making a dentist appointment people who experience extreme anxiety may reap the benefits of a sedation dentistry. This Oklahoma City dentist that is trained uses his patients to quiet and help them relax during even the simplest process. Dentists who intend to use sedation in any kind are expected to finish additional instruction beyond dental school. This instruction instructs them the best way to administer emergency procedures that will be needed in case a patient has an adverse reaction, and particular kinds of sedatives, dangers and side effects related to the drugs.

You’ll find many advantages of sedation dentistry. You’ll likely reap the benefits of the techniques and processes of a sedation dentist if you’re among those people who cannot cope with the idea of stepping into a dentist’s office. Sedation dentistry – also called sleep dentistry – enables those of the most routine dental procedures with intense panic or worry, to see with the dentist for regular checkups with no panic that would plague them through the visit. Additionally, it enables those who don’t have any trouble going to the dentist, but need major dental work to put up with an extreme one time visit instead of coming in multiple times for various processes.

You’ll find three kinds of sedation dentistry. Determined by the kind of dental procedure being performed and the patient’s degree of anxiety, distinct degrees of sedation will be used. Inhalation sedation can gain those people who are extremely nervous about getting basic cleaning processes done. Nitrous oxide, also called laughing gas, is usually used. The patient continues to be conscious of everything but feels joyful and relaxed.

A sedation dentist may choose to administer oral medicines designed to rest the patient. Typically the patient can answer any questions the dentist inquires and continues to be conscious of the action around him.

The third & most extreme type of sedation is administered through IV into muscle or the blood stream. IV sedation can be used when the patient is actually terrified of dental appointments, or when a massive amount work must be done. Determined by the dosage of the sedation drug, the patient might or might not be conscious of what is happening around him. Before administering any drugs the sedation dentist will get a thorough medical history and a listing of current medicines.

Talk about the good thing about seeing an accredited sedation dentist if you experience dental phobia of any sort. Do not let your fear of dental procedures carry you from finding the dentist every six months for cleanings that are critical.

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Property Management Companies Remove Anxiety

Renting out your piece of real estate may be real cash cow as most landlords understand, but that cash flow usually comes with a tremendous concern. Midnight calls from tenants who’ve the hassle of marketing the house when you’ve got a vacancy take out lots of the pleasure of earning money off of leases, late lease payments which you must chase down, and overflowing toilets. One means to have the income while removing much of the anxiety would be to hire Re/Max Energy Property Management company.

These businesses work between. The renter will not even need to understand who you’re when you hire a property management company. While you have the power the company manages the day to day interactions with the renter. The company will manage the marketing for you if you’ve got a vacant unit. Additionally, the property management company will look after screening prospective renters. They’ll also manage the pre-move-in reviews and reviews required after a tenant moves out.

It is possible to step back watching the profits, once the unit is filled. If there exists a concern, communicating will be handled by the company with the renter. You won’t be called if this pipe explosions at the center of the night. The property management company will even make your rental payments to collect. The company will do what’s needed to accumulate if your tenant is making a payment. In some arrangements, the firm may also take over paying taxes, insurance, and the mortgage on the portion of property. You must do nothing but have after all of the invoices happen to be paid the income which is sent your way.

The primary variable that prevents some landlords is the price. These services will be paid for by you. You must consider the price against the period of time you’ll save time that you can subsequently use to pursue other income- appreciate the fruits of your investment work or just making efforts.

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Tricks For Learning Web Design

Even if you possess sufficient information about it, web design OKC may be a tough designing place to find a job for you. You need to possess a nicely strategy as it assists you in managing a a sleek web site with error-free before developing an internet site. Not just that, a suitable website design that is prepared is the secret to really have a beautiful web site for the visitors. Have you been considering learning to be a web designer that was fantastic? Are there many targets in your dish, but your insufficient understanding in website layout is maintaining you from from their website? This post may educate you on the things that you should be aware of to eventually become a web designer that is better.

Movie that was HTML-5 is placed to become the following standard for showing movies online and obviously, you need to provide yet another structure like expensive for people who have an older version as good as both a manner where consumers may supply your content via an HTML-5 structure. Stay away from so called “mystery meat navigation”. This includes utilizing alternative components for the website’s routing or unlabeled pictures. Most of the times, the customer has to mouse over the buttons to actually notice the things they do. Routing is best-kept simple. Use links over the top or over the remaining side of the webpage.

It might look pretty, but avoid from having a lot of cartoons in your website. Getting your revenue dash site flash, twist and turn might seem cool for you, but it’ll probably generate prospective audience a way. It creates your site seem amateurish which isn’t the information you would like to communicate when you include a lot of flamboyant dashes that way. Ensure your webpages all actually have names, and ensure they can be descriptive. A surprising variety of web pages out there are called “untitled document” or “new file”. This-not just completely ruins your Search Engine Optimization, because page names are weighted by search engines heavily when ranking websites, but in addition refuses visitants a good bit of info to recall your website.

Website design is a topic which you constantly need to keep educated on. Bearing this particular at heart, for those who have some friends which are also in to web site improvement then you are going to need to maintain with them in touch. It’s possible for you to trade any new info which you discover in terms of website design, so you’re both along with your sport. Make use of a toolbar on top to assist visitors get the information they want immediately in the event you have a few pages in your website. Contain details, so whenever they had like, they can talk to you. Headers needs to be observable and obvious, and sentences needs to be simple to study along with succinct.

Reduce the number of scrolling or clicking visitors need to do to get info. The more they have to browse to get the info they seek or a person must click, the much more likely they may be to to stop searching because of it. Plan for having a minimum of 400 words on each page by merging web pages of your website which have articles that drops below this amount of phrases. Ensure that your web site utilizes a a well that is consistent for the duration of. Some web sites alter typefaces without any style. This makes the information hard to procedure for visitors. Many websites, especially business web sites, may work staying with even, or fundamental fonts like Arial, Deck New Roman.

It’s critical that your entire web pages have names. Forgetting while creating your web site, to contain names may have devastating results. The greatest cause is the fact that it makes your site look unprofessional when there is also, equally on the web page itself, and no name on an internet search results page. When ascertaining the information of your web site, research engines like google also put major focus on names. Don’t forget to use key words, and also make your names illustrative. Which document types you use for pictures effects your site ‘s load times. Your images should typically be JPEGs or GIFs. They just take up a significant amount of disk space even though MBP and PNG documents may be the choices for internet images. The bigger images can be converted by you right into a more manageable dimensions to aid your audiences possess a user-experience that is better.

Evaluation frequently and early. As a readers might in functionality evaluations early in the design procedure, you must make use of your web site. Ensure that you maintain testing and enhancing it as your web site is growing. Make an effort to ensure that any audio or images which you’re linking to is hosted in your own personal web server. Don’t hot-link to another web site pictures. This is considered as bandwidth theft also it may place you in breach of a copyright also. It is not worth the hazard.

While your website is designed by you, remember there is no need to utilize all the area that is available on every webpage. When you use all accessible pixels, the end result could be an overwhelmingly messy web site. Splitting your website’s components up with area that is empty, may allow it to be more easy for people to pick out what components execute what function. Area may give as much worth as advice. Utilizing the the equipment from a sponsor to create your website is very good for lay out that is basic, however do not totally use them them. It’s perfect that you just include a feature of style and uniqueness to your own web site. This means that you want come up with fresh style components which are not accessible through the use of the supplied choices of the WYSIWYG editor of the host’s.

Hosting your personal website isn’t a good idea, also in the event that you have the cash to get it done. Do just as much of the design yourself as you are able, but in the event that you employ anyone to sponsor it for you personally, you you will not have to be concerned about protection that is fundamental. Start with creating smaller web sites, so prior to starting an important website, you can observe your strengths and flaws. Generate webpages that build from that point as you acquire self-confidence, and include plaintext to start.

As a website is designed by you, appear to your own market. Ask them what is not unimportant in the websites they enjoy. You can be helped by this with all the various features available on your own website along with the style. Considering guidance out of your goal guests can let your website be more relevant. Now you know what it will take to to create a website that was great, have you been assured to begin now? Retain this informative article as a useful guide if you would like to take on a fresh website-design job, in the event you ever want some technical or ethical support.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

Looking For Acupuncture Care?

Individuals are understanding they have actual states that promote their everyday lifestyles, as the range of health-related analysis enlarges. But also comes more treatments that a lot of people are beginning to eventually become fascinated in. Acupuncture service in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is where you can find a powerful method to cut back pain and other signs that they fight with daily, these techniques that’s expanding. The exercise is clearly an alternate approach that’s, Asian origins that are aged. By utilizing needles that are very slender, an acupuncturist intends to excite different points on the human body which might be believed to enhance and also right imbalances in your body. Several individuals can let you know the training that is exceptional continues to be in decreasing the consequences of the signs, a leading element.

Your physician will most likely have you look for different forms of therapy so that they can locate what is best suited for you personally when you have been identified using an ailment which you find tough. It generally is sensible to investigate your options all as no two individuals are exactly alike. You could not be aware of how successful acupuncture in Oklahoma as well as additional types of choice medication may possibly show to be. Generally, people will begin seeking added types of therapy after other approaches have proved to not be effective. But alternative strategies can be beneficial in decreasing therapy costs at the same time. For all those people that have attempted many kinds of drugs, purchasing remedy that cause less side effects, and may be more affordable is generally a no brainer.

In the event you are interested in trying it as an answer for your wellness issues or do not understand much about acupuncture, your physician might be a great spot to begin. Several people of the medical knowledge base have developed more receptive to alternative approaches to clinical therapy in the last few of decades, and yours might not be unable to answer several queries as well as put you in contact. Yet another alternative that is clever would be to have some time to do a bit of study on the area. As you find out about acupuncture in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma you should not be unable to determine if it could be an excellent option for the health-related problems. Getting the best therapy is a crucial part of figuring out the best way to deal with various illnesses.

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What can an Orthodontist do to help?

Understand the type of service dental orthodontist provide is not very common. For those who have misaligned teeth as well as other dental problems need to talk to an orthodontist. Orthodontist in Oklahoma City – Dr. Larson is a specialist who corrects and stops teeth and jaws from dental issues. Dental problems may trigger low-self-esteem and insecurity problems for a lot of individuals plus a person ‘s capability to talk and chew foods can be affected by them. Teeth that are misaligned may also snore, snoring, and other breathing difficulties. An orthodontist can assist you to correct several issues over-bites, like cross-bites, under much more, and morsels.

When you see with an orthodontist, he can shoot x-rays and have you ever bite down on a form to decide on the position of your teeth. The orthodontist may design you personally a therapy plan. This might include braces, retainers, or alternative dental methods. In instances that are serious, orthodontists must to interrupt the jawbones and line their sufferers’ teeth close so they are aligned. Dental issues that orthodontists handle may result due to several variables. As an example, dental issues often run-in your family. Second, when their teeth are lost by infants prematurely, their teeth may become over-crowded after. Other motives include dental caries, traumas, and mishaps. These variables influence the construction of the mouth as well as tooth.

An orthodontist can help by analyzing your teeth, you avoid dental issues. It’s worth observing when they’re seven years of age, that children should have their very first examination particularly when there is a family history of crooked or misaligned teeth. It might sound right for you yourself to do study on the web, before you see. Understand practices that are orthodontic on the web. Simply be sure to see reputable sites offering precise information about orthodontic processes that are typical.

Remember that the insurer might insure the whole or portion of the price of your therapy in the event that you must correct dental problems. Insurance firms generally spend mo-Re in the event an orthodontist that’s in their community is visited by the individual. In the event that you must you can even submit an application for funding using a financial institution or lender. Additionally, some orthodontists provide repayment plans, which enable their patients to cover services over a time period. One other neat thing about orthodontists is the fact that a lot of these offer free consults plus they are going to usually supply their clients about the type of treatments are essential in the first consultation with the opinion.

One can be found by you by performing study on the web, and assessing the telephone directory, on-line sites. You may even wish to take a look at the reviews on the web before a choice is made by you. Ensure he allows you to feel comfy before you select. You also ought to locate an orthodontist which provides various other goods as well as retainers. The specialist-you decide on should utilize the most recent methods and gear in the event you would like excellent results. In the event that you just follow these suggestions, you realize the outcomes you would like and will possess an excellent experience.

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Causes of Severe Antisocial Behavior Differ for Boys and Girls

Causes of Severe Antisocial Behavior Differ for Boys and Girls

The causes of severe antisocial behavior may differ between boys and girls, which could pave the way for new sex-specific treatments, according to a new study.

Researchers from the University of Bath in the United Kingdom and several other European universities used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-techniques to map the brains of more than 200 teenagers between the ages of 14 and 18 to analyze differences in brain development between children with conduct disorder (CD) and a group of typically developing children (the control group).

Findings from the study, which involved 96 young people with CD and 104 typically developing young people, show that the brain’s prefrontal cortex — the region responsible for long-term planning, decision-making, and impulse control — is thinner in boys and girls with CD compared to typically developing boys and girls. The findings also show that young people with more severe forms of the condition have more abnormal brain structure.

Researchers also discovered that specific areas of the brain differ in structure between boys and girls with antisocial behavior. For example, some brain areas showed lower cortical thickness in boys with CD, but higher thickness in girls with CD.

This highlights, for the first time, that there may be sex differences in the brain-based causes of CD, according to the researchers.

CD is poorly understood and thought to be under-diagnosed and often untreated, the researchers noted. Symptoms range from lying and truancy to physical violence and weapon use at its more extreme end. It is thought that at least five percent of school age children are affected by the disorder, which is three times more common in boys than girls.

Previous studies have shown that around half of those who develop CD in childhood go on to show serious antisocial behavior or criminal behavior in adulthood.

Current treatments largely depend on parenting programs, as the condition is often attributed to poor parenting or growing up in a dysfunctional family.

The researchers behind the new study point out that although sometimes useful, these programs are not widely available and may not get to the root of the problem. No specific drug treatment exists yet for CD, although ADHD medication, such as Ritalin, is sometimes given.

“Our results indicate that the development of the brain is disrupted in boys and girls with severe antisocial behavior,” said senior author Dr. Graeme Fairchild from the University of Bath’s Department of Psychology. “These findings suggest that the causes of severe antisocial behavior, and particularly the biological basis of these behaviors, may differ between boys and girls. This could lead to the development of sex-specific treatments or prevention programs for at-risk young people.”

The study was published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Source: University of Bath

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Our Brains Synchronize During Conversation

Our Brains Synchronize During Conversation

The brain-wave rhythms of two people having a conversation begin to align with one another, according to a new study conducted at the Basque Centre on Cognition, Brain, and Language (BCBL) in Spain.

The researchers say that this inter-brain synchrony may be a key factor in understanding language and interpersonal communication.

Previous research has suggested that the brain “synchronizes” according to what is heard and correspondingly adjusts its rhythms to auditory stimuli. In the new study, the researchers went a step further and simultaneously analyzed the complex neuronal activity of two strangers who hold a dialogue for the first time.

They found that something as simple as an everyday conversation causes the brains of the participants to begin to work simultaneously.

By recording cerebral electrical activity, the researchers found that the neuronal activity of two people involved in an act of communication “synchronize” in order to allow for a “connection” between both people.

“It involves interbrain communion that goes beyond language itself and may constitute a key factor in interpersonal relations and the understanding of language,” said researcher Dr. Jon Andoni Duñabeitia.

Overall, the rhythms of the brain waves corresponding to the speaker and the listener adjust according to the sound of the verbal messages expressed in a conversation. This creates a connection between the two brains, which begin to work together towards a common goal: communication.

“The brains of the two people are brought together thanks to language, and communication creates links between people that go far beyond what we can perceive from the outside,” he said. “We can find out if two people are having a conversation solely by analyzing their brain waves.”

During the study, the researchers evaluated 15 pairs of people of the same sex, complete strangers to each other, separated by a folding screen. This ensured that the connection generated was truly thanks to the communication established.

Using a script, the partners held a general conversation and took turns playing the roles of speaker and listener.

Through electroencephalography (EEG) — a non-invasive procedure that analyses electrical activity in the brain — the researchers measured the movement of their brainwaves simultaneously and found that their oscillations took place at the same time.

“To be able to know if two people are talking between themselves, and even what they are talking about, based solely on their brain activity is something truly marvelous. Now we can explore new applications, which are highly useful in special communicative contexts, such as the case of people who have difficulties with communication,” said Duñabeitia.

In the future, the understanding of this interaction between two brains would allow for the analysis of very complex aspects of the fields of psychology, sociology, psychiatry or education.

“Demonstrating the existence of neural synchrony between two people involved in a conversation has only been the first step,” said researcher Dr. Alejandro Pérez. “There are many unanswered questions and challenges left to resolve.”

Pérez adds that the practical potential of the study is enormous. “Problems with communication occur every day. We are planning to get the most out of this discovery of interbrain synchronization with the goal of improving communication,” he concluded.

The findings are published in Scientific Reports.

Source: SINC

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Study: Sexual Health Clinics Should Ask Patients About Domestic Violence

Study: Sexual Health Clinics Should Ask Patients About Domestic Violence

The risk of gynecological and sexual health problems — such as sexually transmitted infections, painful sex, vaginal bleeding, and recurrent urinary tract infections — is three times higher in women who have suffered domestic violence and abuse (DVA).

In addition, 47 percent of women who seek services at sexual health clinics will have experienced DVA at some point in their lives.

Now a new study by researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) and the University of Bristol finds that training clinicians at sexual health clinics to proactively ask patients about domestic violence may help increase referrals to specialist services.

Sexual health services can be the first point of contact for women who have experienced DVA, and were listed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as a setting in which all patients should be asked about this type of abuse. However, most sexual health professionals have had minimal training in identifying and responding to DVA.

“Women attend sexual health clinics for care of their sexual health but little thought is given to whether the relationship with the person that a woman has sex with directly harms her health,” said lead researcher Dr. Alex Sohal at QMUL.

“Without training, system level changes and senior managerial support, clinicians end up ignoring DVA in consultations or have an arbitrary approach that fails many women affected by DVA.”

The study, which involved over 4,300 women, investigated the practicality of sexual health clinics adopting a program called IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). The program was originally aimed at encouraging general practitioners to ask patients whether they were experiencing DVA and to make referrals to specialist domestic violence services.

The researchers tested the intervention in two female walk-in sexual health services: an east London clinic serving an inner-city multi-ethnic population, and a Bristol clinic serving an urban population.

In the east London clinic over seven weeks, 267 out of 2,568 women attending were asked about DVA. Overall, 16 women (four percent) reported that they were affected by abuse. Of these, eight (50 percent) were referred to specialist services.

In the Bristol clinic over twelve weeks, 1,090 out of 1,775 women attending were asked about DVA. Of these, 79 (seven percent) reported being affected by abuse. Eight of the women affected by abuse (10 percent) were referred to the specialist services.

“Not only is this a feasible intervention for a sexual health clinic setting, but we also found that clinical leads and busy local DVA service providers were incredibly supportive, with many people understanding the importance of making this work,” said Sohal.

Source: Queen Mary University of London

 

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A Third of Dementia Cases Are Preventable

A Third of Dementia Cases Are Preventable

A profound new study suggests managing lifestyle factors such as hearing loss, smoking, hypertension, and depression could prevent one-third of the world’s dementia cases.

Moreover, researchers discovered nonpharmacologic interventions such as social contact and exercise can mitigate symptoms associated with dementia.

The report by the Lancet Commission on Dementia Prevention and Care was presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC) 2017. Study findings are published in The Lancet.

“There’s been a great deal of focus on developing medicines to prevent dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease,” says Lon Schneider, M.D., professor of psychiatry and the behavioral sciences at the Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California.

“But we can’t lose sight of the real major advances we’ve already made in treating dementia, including preventive approaches.”

The commission brought together 24 international experts to systematically review existing research and provide evidence-based recommendations for treating and preventing dementia.

About 47 million people have dementia worldwide and that number is expected to climb as high as 66 million by 2030 and 115 million by 2050.

Interestingly, reducing dementia risk can begin in childhood.

The commission’s report identifies nine risk factors in early, mid- and late life that increase the likelihood of developing dementia. About 35 percent of dementia — one in three cases — is attributable to these risk factors, the report says.

By increasing education in early life and addressing hearing loss, hypertension, and obesity in midlife, the incidence of dementia could be reduced by as much as 20 percent, combined.

In late life, stopping smoking, treating depression, increasing physical activity, increasing social contact, and managing diabetes could reduce the incidence of dementia by another 15 percent.

“The potential magnitude of the effect on dementia of reducing these risk factors is larger than we could ever imagine the effect that current, experimental medications could have,” Schneider says.

“Mitigating risk factors provides us a powerful way to reduce the global burden of dementia.”

The commission also examined the effect of nonpharmacologic interventions for people with dementia and concluded that they had an important role in treatment, especially when trying to address agitation and aggression.

“Antipsychotic drugs are commonly used to treat agitation and aggression, but there is substantial concern about these drugs because of an increased risk of death, cardiovascular adverse events and infections, not to mention excessive sedation,” Schneider says.

The evidence showed that psychological, social and environmental interventions such as social contact and activities were superior to antipsychotic medications for treating dementia-related agitation and aggression.

The commission also found that nonpharmacologic interventions like group cognitive stimulation therapy and exercise conferred some benefit in cognition as well.

The commission’s full report provides detailed recommendations for the prevention and the management of dementia.

Topic areas include prevention, treating cognitive symptoms, individualizing dementia care, caring for caregivers, planning for the future following a dementia diagnosis, managing neuropsychiatric symptoms, and considering the end of life.

Source: University of Southern California Health Sciences/EurekAlert
 
Photo: One in three cases of dementia could be prevented by addressing nine lifestyle factors, according to a report from the first Lancet Commission on Dementia Prevention and Care. Credit: Keck Medicine of USC.

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Brain Training May Change How Brain Uses Sensory Data

Brain Training May Change How Brain Uses Sensory Data

Although practice might not always make perfect, training is essential for learning a sport or a musical instrument. In a new study, investigators at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital of McGill University (The Neuro) demonstrated that practice also can change how the brain uses sensory information.

In particular, they showed that, depending on the type of training done beforehand, a part of the brain called the middle temporal visual area (MT) can be either critical for visual perception, or not important at all.

Previous research has shown the area MT is involved in visual motion perception. Damage to area MT causes “motion blindness,” in which patients have clear vision for stationary objects but are unable to see motion.

Such deficits are somewhat mysterious, because it is well-known that area MT is just one of many brain regions involved in visual motion perception. This suggests that other pathways might be able to compensate in the absence of area MT.

Most studies have examined the function of area MT using a task in which subjects view small dots moving across a screen and indicate how they see the dots moving, because this has been proven to activate area MT.

To determine how crucial MT really was for this task, the researchers used a simple trick: They replaced the moving dots with moving lines, which are known to stimulate areas outside area MT more effectively.

Surprisingly, subjects who practiced this task were able to perceive visual motion perfectly even when area MT was temporarily inactivated.

On the other hand, subjects who practiced with moving dots exhibited motion blindness when MT was temporarily deactivated. The motion blindness persisted even when the stimulus was switched back to the moving lines, indicating that the effects of practice were very difficult to undo.

Indeed, the effects of practice with the moving dot stimuli were detectable for weeks afterwards. The key lesson for brain training is that small differences in the training regimen can lead to profoundly different changes in the brain. The new findings suggest it could potentially be a non-invasive method to overcome disabilities caused by neurological disease or trauma.

Stroke patients, for example, often lose their vision as a result of brain damage caused by lack of blood flow to brain cells. With the correct training stimulus, one day these patients could retrain their brains to use different regions for vision that were not damaged by the stroke.

“Years of basic research have given us a fairly detailed picture of the parts of the brain responsible for vision,” said Dr. Christopher Pack, the paper’s senior author.

“Individual parts of the cortex are exquisitely sensitive to specific visual features — colors, lines, shapes, motion — so it’s exciting that we might be able to build this knowledge into protocols that aim to increase or decrease the involvement of different brain regions in conscious visual perception, according to the needs of the subject. This is something we’re starting to work on now.”

Their research was published in the journal Neuron.

Source: McGill University

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Success of Cancer Treatment May Depend on Social Interactions

Success of Cancer Treatment May Depend on Social Interactions

New research suggests social interactions during a course of chemotherapy influences the success of the treatment.

Investigators from the National Institutes of Health and the University of Oxford discovered cancer patients were a little more likely to survive for five years or more after chemotherapy if they interacted during chemotherapy with other patients who also survived for five years or more.

Patients were a little more likely to die in less than five years after chemotherapy when they interacted during chemotherapy with those who died in less than five years.

The findings appear online in the journal Network Science.

“People model behavior based on what’s around them,” said Jeff Lienert, lead author from the NHI’s National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).

“For example, you will often eat more when you’re dining with friends, even if you can’t see what they’re eating. When you’re bicycling, you will often perform better when you’re cycling with others, regardless of their performance.”

Lienert set out to see if the impact of social interaction extended to cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Joining this research effort were Lienert’s adviser, Felix Reed-Tsochas, Ph.D., Laura Koehly, Ph.D., and Christopher Marcum, Ph.D.

They based their findings on electronic medical records data from 2000 to 20009 from two major hospitals in the United Kingdom’s National Health Service.

The researchers examined the total time a patient spent with the same patients undergoing chemotherapy and their five-year survival rate. The five-year survival rate is the percentage of people who live at least five years after chemotherapy treatment is completed.

For example, a five-year survival rate of 70 percent means that an estimated 70 out of 100 people are still alive five years after chemotherapy. They also reviewed a room schematic to confirm the assumption that patients were potentially positioned to interact.

“We had information on when patients checked in and out of the chemotherapy ward, a small intimate space where people could see and interact for a long period of time,” Lienert said. “We used ‘time spent getting chemotherapy in a room with others’ as a proxy for social connection.”

When patients were around those during chemotherapy who died in less than five years following chemotherapy, they had a 72 percent chance of dying within five years following their chemotherapy.

The best outcome was when patients interacted with someone who survived for five years or longer: They had a 68 percent chance of dying within five years. The researchers’ model also predicted that if patients were isolated from other patients, they would have a 69.5 percent chance of dying within five years.

“A two percent difference in survival — between being isolated during treatment and being with other patients — might not sound like a lot, but it’s pretty substantial,” Lienert said.

“If you saw 5,000 patients in nine years, that 2 percent improvement would affect 100 people.”

“Mr. Lienert’s research is the first to investigate, on a large scale, how social context in a treatment setting can play a significant role in disease outcomes,” said Koehly.

“As cancer care moves more towards targeted therapies based on genomic tumor assessments, NHGRI is interested in understanding how these social environmental factors might impact treatment efficacy.”

The researchers didn’t study why the difference occurred, but hypothesize that it may be related to stress response. “When you’re stressed, stress hormones such as adrenaline are released, resulting in a fight or flight response,” Lienert said.

“If you are then unable to fight or fly, such as in chemotherapy, these hormones can build up.”

While the researchers also didn’t investigate the impact of visitors on cancer patients undergoing therapy, the effect would likely be similar, he said.

“Positive social support during the exact moments of greatest stress is crucial,” Lienert said.

“If you have a friend with cancer, keeping him or her company during chemotherapy probably will help reduce their stress. The impact is likely to be as effective, and possibly more effective, than cancer patients interacting with other cancer patients.”

Source: National Human Genome Research Institute

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Different Bacteria Profile Found in Alzheimer’s Brains

Different Bacteria Profile Found in Alzheimer’s Brains

The brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease appear to show both increased bacterial populations and different proportions of specific bacteria compared to healthy brains, according to a new U.K. study which used DNA sequencing to evaluate the postmortem brains of Alzheimer’s patients.

The new findings, published in the journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, support growing evidence that bacterial infection and inflammation in the brain may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease, a severe neurodegenerative condition that leads to cognitive decline, and eventually death.

“Alzheimer’s brains usually contain evidence of neuroinflammation, and researchers increasingly think that this could be a possible driver of the disease, by causing neurons in the brain to degenerate,” said study author Dr. David Emery at the University of Bristol.

But what exactly is causing this inflammation? Some genetic risk-factors for Alzheimer’s disease can have effects on the inflammatory response, but infection may also play a role.

“Neuroinflammation in the brain may be a reaction to the presence of bacteria,” said Emery.

A healthy brain is sealed behind specialized blood vessels that make it very difficult for bacteria in the blood to enter. However, certain genetic risk-factors for Alzheimer’s disease may cause these blood vessels to lose some of their integrity, potentially allowing bacteria to enter and colonize the brain.

For the study, the researchers investigated whether there were any differences in the types of bacteria present in brains from Alzheimer’s disease patients and healthy brains.

“Previous studies looking at bacteria in the Alzheimer’s brain have primarily investigated specific bacterial species,” said Dr. Shelley Allen, another researcher involved in the study.

“We wanted to use an unbiased method to obtain the fullest overview possible of the entire bacterial population in the Alzheimer’s brain, and compare these results with those from a healthy aged brain.”

The research team analyzed eight Alzheimer’s and six healthy brain samples from a brain bank, where people donate their brains after death for medical research. They used a technique called next generation sequencing (NGS) to detect specific bacterial genes.

“NGS technology allows millions of these DNA molecules to be sequenced at the same time, providing an unbiased overview of a complex bacterial population,” said Allen.

The researchers found that the Alzheimer’s brains contained different proportions of specific bacteria compared with the healthy brains.

“Comparing the bacterial populations showed at least a tenfold higher ratio overall of Actinobacteria (mostly P. acnes) to Proteobacteria in the Alzheimer’s brain compared with the healthy brain,” said Emery.

However, they were surprised to discover that there also appeared to be more bacteria in the Alzheimer’s brains.

“Unexpectedly, Alzheimer’s brains gave on average an apparent 7-fold increase in bacterial sequences above that seen in the healthy brain,” said Allen. “The healthy brains yielded only low levels of bacterial sequences, consistent with either a background signal or normal levels present in the blood stream in brain tissue.”

The researchers warn that the NGS technique does not directly indicate bacterial numbers, and more studies are needed to confirm that bacteria play an active role in the disease.

“We need quantitative studies on the bacterial presence in the brain,” said Allen. “Larger numbers of brain samples are required, and future studies should also investigate if bacteria are involved in other neurodegenerative diseases involving neuroinflammation.”

Source: Frontiers

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Work Stress Can Lead to Shopping Binges

Work Stress Can Lead to Shopping Binges

Michigan State University investigators found that when service workers face verbal abuse from customers during the workday, they are more likely to go on unnecessary shopping sprees in the evening.

Investigators studied 94 call-center workers at a large bank in China and discovered that customer mistreatment (e.g., customers who yelled, argued, swore, etc.) put the employees in a bad mood after work.

This, in turn, led to damaging thoughts (ruminating or repeatedly and excessively worrying about the mistreatment) and behaviors (impulse shopping).

“Thus, stress from customers spills over to spoil people’s experiences outside of work,” said Dr. Russell Johnson, a MSU associate professor of management.

The findings from Johnson and colleagues, who surveyed employees multiple times per day for 15 consecutive workdays, appear online in the Academy of Management Journal.

In the study, the researchers explored a variety of interventions and found simple solutions to the problem.

The first approach encouraged workers to think about a recent incident where they helped customers (a “recall of prosocial action intervention”) before starting work.

Another effective strategy, also performed before going to work, was for the worker to think about an interaction from the customer’s viewpoint (a “perspective-taking intervention”).

Researchers discovered setting a pre-work mentality reduced employees’ perceptions of mistreatment, reduced their negative mood and led to less rumination and impulse shopping.

Becoming more prosocial shifts attention away from the self and reduces impulsive and individualistic acts, explain the study authors.

“These recall and perspective-taking interventions are quick and easy exercises that customer-service employees can do prior to beginning the workday to reduce the stress from rude customers,” Johnson said.

Source: Michigan State University

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Brain Anomaly Tied to PTSD & Brain Injury in Vets

Brain Anomaly Tied to PTSD & Brain Injury in Vets

A new study finds that veterans who developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) tend to have a larger amygdala — the part of the brain that helps regulate emotion — compared to veterans with mild TBIs who didn’t develop PTSD.

The findings were recently presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s Sports Concussion Conference in Jacksonville, FL.

“Many consider PTSD to be a psychological disorder, but our study found a key physical difference in the brains of military-trained individuals with brain injury and PTSD, specifically the size of the right amygdala,” said Joel Pieper, M.D., M.S., of University of California, San Diego.

“These findings have the potential to change the way we approach PTSD diagnosis and treatment.”

Together, the right and left sides of the amygdala help control emotion, memories, and behavior. Research has shown that the right amygdala controls fear and aversion to unpleasant stimuli.

For the study, researchers evaluated 89 current or former members of the military with mild traumatic brain injury. Using standard symptom scale ratings, 29 participants were identified with significant PTSD. The rest of the participants had mild traumatic brain injury without PTSD.

Using brain scans to measure the volume of various brain regions, the researchers found that subjects with mild traumatic brain injury and PTSD had 6 percent overall larger amygdala volumes, particularly on the right side, compared to those with mild traumatic brain injury only. No significant differences in age, education, or gender between the PTSD and control groups were found.

The study also shows only an association and does not prove PTSD causes structural changes in the amygdala.

“People who suffered a concussion and had PTSD demonstrated a larger amygdala size, so we wonder if amygdala size could be used to screen who is most at risk to develop PTSD symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury,” said Pieper.

“On the other hand, if there are environmental or psychological cues that lead to brain changes and enlargement of the amygdala, then maybe such influences can be monitored and treated.”

“Further studies are needed to better define the relationship between amygdala size and PTSD in mild traumatic brain injury. Also, while these findings are significant, it remains to be seen whether similar results may be found in those with sports-related concussions,” said Pieper.

Pieper emphasizes that the current study focused on veterans with blast injuries, not those with sports-related concussions.

Source: American Academy of Neurology

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Mice Study Links Depression Symtoms to Abnormal Brain Wiring

Mice Study Links Depression Symtoms to Abnormal Brain Wiring

A new study has linked specific wiring in the brain to distinct behavioral symptoms of depression.

University of California San Diego scientists found brain circuits tied to feelings of despair and helplessness and were able to alleviate and even reverse such symptoms in mice studies.

The research is published in the journal Cell.

“We took an approach of studying depression in the sense that different brain areas and circuits of the brain might mediate or contribute to very discrete aspects of depression,” said study first-author Daniel Knowland, a UC San Diego graduate student.

“For example, brain area A might contribute to loss of appetite, brain area B to social withdrawal and so forth.”

Senior author Dr. Byungkook Lim, an assistant professor in the Neurobiology Section, said the results require much more study and evaluation to be applied to humans with depression, but the new research in animal models provides solid grounding.

“This is one of the first studies providing clear evidence showing that different brain circuitry is involved in different types of depressive behavior with specific symptoms,” said Lim.

“Each area of the brain is different with distinct cell types and connectivity, so if we can confirm that one area of circuitry is more involved in a particular symptom than another, we may eventually be able to treat a depression patient more efficiently than treating everyone the same way.”

The researchers employed several tools to track brain pathways and specific areas of neurons involved in specific behaviors, including imaging techniques and social strategy behavioral models.

Two populations of neurons were identified in the brain’s ventral pallidum region (part of the basal ganglia) as key to underlying depressive behavior.

The new study found that specifically modifying pathways in these two areas in a mouse displaying depression led to improved behavioral changes similar to those of a healthy mouse.

More importantly, this study provides strong insight to understanding the interaction between several brain areas in depression.

Previous studies have mainly focused on the role of certain brain areas in isolation. Researchers in the new study were able to examine connections across multiple regions and how one impacted the other.

Source: University of California – San Diego

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