Difference Between Acupuncture And Chiropractic Treatment

If you are keen on getting some basic information about the difference between chiropractic treatment and acupuncture, then you have many reasons to go through this article. Both are effective forms of treatment and they originate from their own schools. While there is no doubt that acupuncture is a much older form of treatment, chiropractic treatments continue to also become quite accepted amongst various sections of society. Sportspersons, in general, are more favorably inclined towards chiropractic treatment but quite a few of them also believe in acupuncture, especially when it comes to nagging and chronic injuries. Let us get started by understanding the basics of both chiropractic and acupuncture methods of treatment.


What Is Chiropractic Treatment


Put in plain and simple words, chiropractic treatment is about making small adjustments, manipulations, pushes and pulls to relieve pain and also various other types of discomforts. It is done by qualified and experienced chiropractors who use other tools like laser rays and other such methods. It is effective in managing some chronic pains of the back, neck, and joints.


What Is Acupuncture


When we talk about acupuncture, we are referring to a form of treatment where needles are inserted at various pressure points and this could give relief from pain in various parts of the body. Though both these forms of treatment are aimed at pain management, they have different approaches. It may not be out of place to mention here that chiropractic treatment might be less invasive in the absence of needles being pricked in different parts of the body.


Acupuncture Improves Blood Circulation


According to the science behind acupuncture, most problems occur because of wrong blood circulation and this could be corrected when acupuncture is used properly. Low circulation of blood could lead to low immunity and hence when this is corrected it could lead to freedom from pain, inflammation and other such issues.


Chiropractic Treatment Is More About Muscles, Tissues, And Joints


On the other hand, when one talks about chiropractic treatment, it is more about giving relief to the tissues, joints, and muscles. It offers huge relief from inflammation and pain and all this is done without any surgical intervention. Further, chiropractic treatments could also be useful in addressing problems related to the nerves. This is the reason as to why it is considered very useful when it comes to treating newly born children.


Both Are Complementary To One Another


It would also be pertinent to mention here that both these forms of external treatments are good in their own ways. They have unique advantages and of course, they do also have shortcomings in some cases. But it would not be out of place to mention here that both are complementary to one another and therefore it is quite likely that both will grow side by side in future.


Which To Choose


The answer to the question of which option to choose would depend on a number of factors. The kind of pain, injury or disease will be the main deciding factor. For pain management chiropractic treatment could be okay. On the other hand, acupuncture is suggested for some chronic forms of diseases.

Contact US:

Elledge Chiropractic & Acupuncture

5715 N Western Ave #B
Oklahoma City,
Phone: (405) 858-2225

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

How To Choose The Right Chiropractor

Are you from Frisco and are you looking for a hands-on approach for various healthcare related issues? Are you suffering from chronic pain, blood pressure and problems related to your neurological functions? If yes, then we would request you to spend some time going through this article. We will be looking at the role of a good chiropractor in your neighborhood of your town.

Chiropractic medicine has been around for many hundreds of years and it has stood the test of time. It is considered to be an effective and result oriented form of medication. It is non-invasive and you need not put your body under the knife. It also is not very expensive when compared to other forms of surgical treatments. It also does not believe in treating pain and other such conditions with painkillers and other such medications. It relies more on specific adjustments to the various parts of the body.

However, you have to ensure that you choose the right chiropractor in Frisco. This is not an easy job. The reasons are quite obvious. Not all of us have the right idea and knowledge about chiropractic medication. Further, if we look around Frisco and surrounding areas, we are sure to come across quite a few such professionals. We are happy to share some important points that we believe will help you to make the right choice if you are planning to hire these professionals.

Take Referrals

Though the internet could be helpful in broad-basing your selection, the good old referral method works fine as far as hiring these professionals are concerned. You could get in touch with your friends, family members and also your own healthcare professional. They will be able to give you the best of references based on their experiences and this certainly is good news for you.

Have A Close Look At Their Credentials

While there are dozens of chiropractors in and around Frisco, TX, not all are the same. Some have good credentials while others may not have the same. Therefore, you must spend time and get to know more about their credentials and goodwill.  You must be sure that they have the required experience, training and skill-sets. They should also be free from any history of disciplinary actions or malpractices. This is not a tough task to verify because any chiropractor would have to be affiliated to the local institutions or organization. Further, you also can expect that they would have gone to some school and you can get details about them by contacting the school and obtaining the right details.

Experience And Expertise

Any good chiropractor is as good as her experience and expertise. Therefore, you must try and always hire those who carry with them at least ten to twelve of experience. This is important because you will be handing over your health issues and some musculoskeletal health related problems. Therefore, you will feel safer and the results perhaps will be much better if you decide to get yourself treated by an experienced chiropractor. He or she will be able to understand your problems better and the diagnosis and treatment will also be better.

Look For The Right Gender

You must feel comfortable when talking to your Frisco sports chiropractor because quite often the problem could be intimate and personal in nature. It would always b better to look for somebody who is of the same gender as you. Further, these days, chiropractors are better at treating specific genders. For example, women are better at treating their own genders and the same is the case with men.

Contact US:

Taylor Family Chiropractic

Address:8501 Wade Blvd #240
Frisco, TX
Phone: 214-387-7883

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

Understanding Something Useful About Neck Pain

Also referred to as the cervical spine, the neck is a very important part of the body. It holds in place the vertebrae or spine which runs through the base of the skull to the upper torso. We need to understand that the neck has a significant range of motion. It also supports the entire weight of the head. But, unlike the spin, it is not well protected. Therefore, the neck is often prone to injuries and disorders. This could lead to inflammation, pain, and range of motion and movement could become restricted severely. In most cases, neck pain and discomfort is temporary in nature and it disappears in a few days. However, there are some situations where the neck pain might become either very acute or it also could become chronic. In such situations, medical intervention might be necessary

What Are The Causes Of Neck Pain

There could be many reasons for neck pain. The most common reasons are some abnormalities in the soft tissues. These include ligaments, muscles, and nerves. It could also be because of some problems with the disks and bones of the spine. However, soft tissue abnormalities like sprains are the most common reasons for neck pain. Pain, discomfort, and inflammation could also occur due to prolonged wear and tear. There could also pain because of infection and abnormal growth such as tumors. Neck pain could also migrate to other parts of the body and many people suffer from pain and discomfort of the shoulders, upper back, and arms. In many cases, the underlying cause could be some problems with the neck and therefore you must not ignore such pains. These are also referred to as sympathetic pain.

CDD or Cervical Disk Degeneration

The disk plays an important part and does the job of a shock absorber between the neck and bone. When a person suffers from CDD or cervical disk degeneration, he or she could be in some big problem. It actually occurs for people who are forty years and above. When a person suffers from CDD the gelatin-like center situated in the disk degenerates and this leads to narrowing of space between the vertebrae. When this happens, it leads to increased stress to the joints of the spine. This, over a period of time, causes further wear and tear and leads to a situation called as degenerative diseases. The cervical disk could also protrude and this could also lead to increased pressure on the spinal cord and could pinch the nerve roots. This also is referred to as a herniated cervical disk.

Injury Could Also Be A Cause

The neck is very flexible and it also supports the weight of the head as mentioned above. Therefore it is always vulnerable to injury. It is common to come across instances of diving accidents, motor vehicle accidents and also accidents caused by other contact Owasso chiropractor sports. Falls could also result in bad injuries to the neck. Hence, prevention is the keyword wherever it is possible. While nothing much can be done in case of contact sports, diving, and other such sports, one can take precaution when it comes to driving cars. Use of seat belts can certainly prevent a number of neck injuries that are caused by forward-momentum when a crash occurs or when the brake is applied suddenly.

Contact US:

Ashlock Chiropractic

Address:12899 E 76th St N #101
Owasso, OK
Phone: (918) 272-0444

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

Living Abroad Tied to Clearer Sense of Self

A new study reveals that living abroad can help clarify one’s sense of self. According to the findings, living in other parts of the world encourages us to reflect on the various cultural values and norms that we encounter both at home and in the host cultures.

In turn, these reflections can help us discover which values define us personally and which simply reflect our cultural upbringing. This is particularly true for those who live abroad for a long period of time.

The research was conducted by a team of social scientists from Rice University, Columbia University and the University of North Carolina. Their paper is published in the journal Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

Previous research has shown that transitional experiences, such as getting divorced or losing a job, typically decrease individuals’ self-concept clarity. In contrast, this study looks at the possibility that living abroad is a rare kind of transitional experience that actually increases self-concept clarity.

“In a world where living-abroad experiences are increasingly common and technological advances make cross-cultural travel and communication ever easier, it is critical that research keeps pace with these developments and seeks to understand how they affect people,” the authors wrote.

“In this vein, our studies demonstrate that living abroad affects the fundamental structure of the self-concept by enhancing its clarity. The German philosopher Hermann von Keyserling wrote in the epigraph to his 1919 book ‘The Travel Diary of a Philosopher,’ ‘The shortest path to oneself leads around the world.’ Almost 100 years later, our research provides empirical evidence in support of this idea.”

The researchers conducted six studies involving 1,874 participants who were recruited from online panels as well as from U.S. and international MBA programs. The participants, including those who have and have not lived abroad, completed surveys.

Most research on foreign experiences has focused on whether people have lived abroad or not, but this new study takes a more nuanced approach to distinguish between the depth and the breadth of international experiences. The findings suggest that depth (the length of time lived abroad) rather than breadth (the number of foreign countries lived in) enhances a clear sense of self.

The authors found that the longer people live abroad, the more self-discerning reflections they accumulate. As a result, they are more likely to develop a better understanding of themselves and show increased clarity about career decision-making, the authors said.

Understanding the impact of living abroad has practical implications for organizations as they operate across national borders and recruit foreign talent.

Extended periods of time spent in a foreign country can yield a myriad of benefits, including greater life satisfaction, decreased stress, improved job performance and enhanced clarity regarding a fulfilling career. Having a clearer sense of self is increasingly important in today’s world with its unprecedented range of available career options, according to the authors.

Source: Rice University


Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

Family Behavioral Therapy for Obesity May Work Best for Impulsive Kids

Although impulsivity may increase the risk for obesity in children, the trait appears to be linked to better outcomes during family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) for weight loss.

FBT is designed to change parent and child behaviors and is currently the recommended intervention for children with obesity. The new study was presented, at ENDO 2018, the 100th annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in Chicago, Ill.

“Our novel results indicate that impulsivity may be a risk factor for uncontrolled eating and excessive weight gain,” said lead study author Christian L. Roth, M.D., professor of pediatrics at the Seattle Children’s Research Institute in Washington.

“Children who rated high in impulsivity had higher body mass index (BMI) measures and greater body fat mass compared to those who rated lower in impulsivity.”

“However, we found that children with obesity who were rated as more impulsive prior to starting FBT had greater weight-loss success in the program compared to children with obesity who were rated as less impulsive,” added co-author Kelley Scholz, M.S.W., research supervisor at Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

Researchers assessed the impact of a six-month long FBT obesity intervention delivered to 54 children with obesity and 22 healthy-weight children, all between 9 and 11 years of age.

The authors rated the children for impulsivity using attention and inhibition tasks from a standardized test — the Developmental NEuroPSYchological Assessment — NEPSY-II.

The healthy-weight children did not take part in the FBT program but were tested at the beginning and end of the study along with the participants who had obesity.

At baseline, a larger proportion of children with obesity scored as high-impulsivity compared with healthy-weight children. Among children with obesity, those who scored high in impulsivity had higher BMI and greater fat mass.

The children with obesity and their families took part in 24 weekly FBT session that involved a meeting between the family and a staff member in a private room for about 30 minutes with discussion of issues specifically related to that family. Also, 45-minute parent and child group sessions were held in a large conference room.

Therapy meetings focused on food, physical activity education and behavioral skills such as self-monitoring and environmental control, using praise and rewards to reinforce positive eating and physical activity.

The NEPSY-II inhibition test results predicted weight loss. Of the 40 children with obesity who completed the study, the 18 who were rated high-impulsivity had a greater drop in BMI than the lower-impulsivity obese children.

Inhibition scores improved at the end of the FBT program, and the children whose inhibition scores improved most had greater drops in BMI and fat mass.

Although the results look promising, the researchers recommend further related research.

Source: The Endocrine Society/EurekAlert

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default
Kids’ Personality Traits Tied to Later Political Leanings

Kids’ Personality Traits Tied to Later Political Leanings

New research finds that adults’ political tendencies can be traced back to early childhood temperament, those aspects of personality that are thought to be biologically based, or innate, rather than learned.

Researchers in the U.K. looked at data from more than 16,000 participants in two longitudinal studies. Their analysis revealed links between conduct problems at ages 5 and 7 and economic and political discontent 25 years later.

The findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“Findings from both studies indicate that children who showed higher levels of conduct problems – that is, aggression, fighting, stealing from peers – were more likely to be economically left-leaning and distrustful of the political system as adults,” said study author Dr. Gary J. Lewis of Royal Holloway, University of London. “Some, but not all, of this link was explained by educational attainment and socioeconomic status in adulthood.”

The findings shed light on the relationship between personality traits and political sentiment, suggesting a link that spans more than two decades.

Lewis investigated this link by analyzing data from the British Cohort Study and the National Child Development Study, two longitudinal cohort studies following individuals in the United Kingdom.

Participants’ parents completed an assessment of their children’s behavior when the children were either 5 or 7 years old, reporting on behaviors related to anxiety, conduct problems and hyperactivity.

At age 30 or 33, the participants completed measures that gauged their economic conservatism, political cynicism, racism, authoritarianism and attitudes about gender inequality. These measures cohered into two broad factors: economic/political discontent and social conservatism.

The studies also included data about the parents’ social class and the participants’ childhood intelligence, educational attainment and social class in adulthood.

Modeling the relationships among these variables, Lewis found that childhood conduct problems were associated with economic/political discontent in adulthood, even after parental social class and childhood intelligence were taken into account. It is possible, Lewis noted, that conduct problems in childhood may reflect difficulty with self-control and long-term planning or early rejection of authority, either of which could lead to economic/political discontent.

The models also indicated indirect pathways in both cohorts, by which conduct problems were associated with lower educational attainment and adult social class and, ultimately, greater economic/political discontent.

These associations may be modest in strength, said Lewis, but they are stable over a 25-year span, suggesting early foundations of later political attitudes. Future research with more detailed and frequent assessments will help to illuminate the exact nature of these long-term associations.

“We all wonder from time to time why it is that those on the other side of the fence came to be that way,” Lewis said. “These findings take us a little further down the road to answering that question.”

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default

Why Playing Violin Can Improve Cognitive Function

When you are able to play a musical instrument and are confident in your abilities, it can lead to an incredibly fulfilling and enjoyable experience. There is an abundance of instruments that you can choose from, but the one we will touch upon more in this article is the violin. The violin is a loved instrument by many, illuminating a mystique and romantic aura. Even with this as the core base, playing the violin can actually improve your overall cognitive functions as well due to a variety of reasons.

Reduces Stress

With stress comes the increased probability of having anxiety, depression, and other related health issues that negatively impact your cognitive functionality. Stress is a common issue amongst people, so having an outlet to relieve that is ideal. Playing the violin is an excellent way to reduce stress and feel rejuvenated. In fact, there was a study done on cancer patients, and it was discovered that those who listened to and played music had much lower stress levels than those who did not.

Improves your Posture

Do you find yourself typically hunched over daily, or tend to have back pain often? Many adults suffer from unhealthy spines due to slouching or have a sedentary lifestyle. Believe it or not, poor posture can harm your cogitative function as well due to spinal misalignment, which can hinder proper nerve signals being delivered to your brain. When you play the violin, it forces you to sit up properly. Knowing how to stand and sit correctly can promote you to do this even when you are not playing.

You will be Happier

When you play the violin, you will find that you will become much happier within your life. It can give you a sense of purpose and belonging, as well as increased self-confidence as you begin to progress from devoted practice. The release of dopamine and serotonin in your brain will allow you to feel blissful and promote you to optimize your true potential.

Other Impacted Brain Functions

With the violin comes increased brain functionality in nearly every area. In fact, there have been brain scans conducted to compare the brains of musicians and non-musicians. They found that the corpus callosum is much larger in musicians. It was also discovered that areas of the brain involving movement, hearing, memory, and visuospatial alibi are much more prevalent as well.


One of the most notable and scientifically researched aspects of playing a musical instrument is the impact it has on one’s brain. It is no secret that the violin is an excellent instrument choice. It is one of those elements in life that helps stimulate your brain in ways that nothing else seems to be able to. With the incredible benefits that playing the violin provides, it is no wonder why so many people are taking up this musical skill. From the cognitive abilities to the physical ones, playing the violin is immensely beneficial for your overall health and wellbeing.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default
Study Finds Delay in Initial Dementia Diagnosis

Study Finds Delay in Initial Dementia Diagnosis

A new study has found that dementia patients are not undergoing evaluation at the onset of the dementia process, a delay that prevents early, beneficial treatment.

The study, conducted by a multidisciplinary Spectrum Health neurology team, also found that home-based, patient-centered care may improve early screening and detection of dementia.

For the new study, researchers reviewed 110 randomly-chosen initial evaluations from the Spectrum Health Medical Group Neurocognitive Clinic in Grand Rapids, Michigan, from 2008 to 2015.

They discovered that 78.9 percent of the patients evaluated already had moderate or severe dementia at the time of diagnosis.

“The findings indicate that people are living with dementia for significant periods of time before seeking diagnosis and treatment,” said Timothy Thoits, M.D., lead author and neurology division chief, Spectrum Health Medical Group. “The earlier the diagnosis, the earlier treatment can begin and the earlier the benefit to the patient and his or her family and caregivers.”

The researchers reviewed the initial diagnostic patient evaluations, which included a neurological examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and a battery of neuropsychological testing. They determined dementia stage and severity by correlating it with the number of lifestyle changes recommended at the time of diagnosis, which they say is a novel study method that has not previously been used.

Lifestyle changes included medication assistance, financial assistance, driving restrictions, and institutional care. At the time of diagnosis, providers recommended lifestyle changes in 75.8 percent of patients with dementia.

The study concludes that “an increase in home-based, patient-centered medical care, regardless of the patient’s living status, may be one way to improve recognition of cognitive deficits and increase the frequency of important and necessary early cognitive evaluations.”

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines home-based care as “any form of assistance provided to a sick person referred to as the patient directly in the home by family, friends, and members of the local community, cooperating with the advice and support from the trained health workers.”

The study was published in The American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias.

Source: Spectrum Health

Photo: Timothy Thoits, M.D., lead author and neurology division chief, Spectrum Health Medical Group. Credit: Spectrum Health.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default
New Clues on Why Sense of Direction Fades With Age

New Clues on Why Sense of Direction Fades With Age

A new study has found a possible explanation for the difficulty in spatial orientation sometimes experienced by elderly people.

During the study, researchers detected unstable activity in the brains of older adults in an area that is central for spatial navigation.

In the long term, these findings might open up new ways for detecting Alzheimer’s disease, according to researchers at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE).

To guide us through space in a goal-directed manner, the brain has to process a flood of information, ranging from visual stimuli to cues provided by the muscular system and our sense of balance. This means spatial orientation and navigation are among the most complex abilities of the human mind, researchers note.

Unfortunately, these skills often deteriorate as we grow older, which can severely compromise independence and quality of life.

“When you move around an unfamiliar environment, it is perfectly normal to get lost. Yet, this tends to happen more often to older people. So far, we know very little about the underlying neuronal mechanisms of these navigation problems,” said Matthias Stangl, a researcher at the DZNE’s Magdeburg site and first author of the study.

“We had the hypothesis that so-called grid cells might be implicated. A major part of the navigational processing is done by these cells. They are specialized neurons located in the brain’s entorhinal cortex. Therefore, we guessed that deficits in grid cell function might be a cause for problems in navigation.”

To test this assumption, Stangl and his colleagues performed experiments with 41 healthy young and older adults, who were split in two groups. The group of “young adults” consisted of 20 participants between the ages of 19 and 30, while the group of older adults was made up of 21 individuals between the ages of 63 and 81. Both groups included men and women.

One of the experiments combined functional brain imaging (fMRI) and virtual reality, according to the researchers. Participants had to navigate through a computer-generated scenery while their brain activity patterns were monitored.

A second experiment tested the ability for “path integration.” In this experiment, participants moved along predefined curved paths. At intermediate stops, they had to estimate their distance and orientation relative to their starting point, but without being able to see or pinpoint its location. Since this test was carried out in two versions, it took place both in real space and in a virtual environment, researchers explained.

“All things considered, young participants did better in navigation, which is in line with previous studies. However, we found an association between decreased navigational performance and deficits in grid cell activity,” said Professor Thomas Wolbers, a DZNE senior scientist and supervisor of the study.

“Grid cells fired differently when comparing young and old adults. Specifically, firing patterns were less stable over time in older individuals, which indicates that these brain circuits are compromised in old age. This might be a cause of why many senior people tend to have troubles with spatial navigation.”

“Grid cells play a central role not just in navigation but also in other cognitive functions,” Wolbers added. “Therefore, our findings might indicate a key mechanism underlying cognitive deficits in old age. Not only does this provide insights into neurophysiological changes due to aging, it may also help in designing therapies against age-related cognitive decline.”

While weakening navigational skills might occur in healthy adults, such a decline is also considered as one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s.

“Assessing navigation performance and grid cell function could possibly facilitate early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative disorders,” Wolbers said.

“To this end, it would be necessary to develop diagnostic methods that distinguish between an age-related decline in navigational ability and a decline caused by disease. This might be a challenging task. However, our findings lay the foundation for future studies on such topics.”

The study was published in the journal Current Biology.

Source: German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Photo: Soil patterns, as used in one of the experiments: a virtual, computer-generated scene was used to test the ability of young and older adults to orient themselves spatially. Credited to DZNE.

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default
Childhood Aggression Linked to Deficits in Executive Function

Childhood Aggression Linked to Deficits in Executive Function

A new study has found that elementary school children with reduced cognitive skills for planning and self-restraint are more likely to show increased aggression in middle childhood.

Children with lower executive function — a measure of cognitive skills that allow a person to achieve goals by controlling their behavior — were more likely to show physical, relational, and reactive aggression in later years, but not proactive aggression, according to the study.

The increased aggression, which was observed in both boys and girls, may be partly due to an increased tendency for anger in these children, researchers noted.

The findings suggest that helping children to increase their executive function could reduce their aggression, researchers add.

In the new study, researchers at the University of Potsdam in Germany investigated the relationship between childhood executive function and different types of aggression to see if deficits in executive function could predict aggressive behavior in later years.

The research team assessed German primary school children between the ages of six and 11 at three time points: the start of the study, about a year later, and around three years later. The children completed behavioral tasks to reveal different aspects of their executive function, including memory, planning abilities, and self-restraint, researchers reported.

The researchers also asked the children’s teachers to record their tendency for different types of aggression. These included physical aggression, relational aggression (where a child might socially exclude someone or threaten to end a friendship), reactive aggression (where a child reacts aggressively to provocation), and proactive aggression (where a child is aggressive in “cold blood” without being provoked).

Finally, the children’s parents completed a survey detailing how easily the children tended to get angry.

“We found that deficits in executive function affected later physical and relational aggression,” said Dr. Helena Rohlf, the lead author on the study. “The more deficits children showed at the start of the study, the higher their aggression one and three years later.”

Rohlf and her colleagues also found that an increased tendency for anger in children with reduced executive function may partly explain their increased aggression in later years. Furthermore, deficits in executive function were related to increased reactive aggression over time, but not proactive aggression, she noted.

“This ties in with the idea of proactive aggression as cold-blooded, planned aggression,” said Rohlf. “Executive function allows children to behave in a planned and deliberate fashion, which is characteristic of proactive aggression.”

The research team also found that executive function had similar effects on aggression in girls and boys.

“We found that although aggressive behavior was more common among boys, the links between executive function, anger, and aggression seem to be similar for girls and boys,” said Rohlf.

The results suggest that training programs that help children increase their executive function and manage their anger could reduce their aggression.

The researchers said they plan to conduct further studies to see if their results also apply to children with serious levels of aggression.

The study was published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience.

Source: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Posted by Patricia Adams in Default